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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Intensive multimodality therapy for patients with stage 4a metastatic retinoblastoma.

BACKGROUND: We previously reported promising pilot results treating patients with stage 4a metastatic retinoblastoma with combined intensive conventional chemotherapy, high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell rescue, and radiation therapy and now present an expanded and updated series. PROCEDURE: Fifteen patients with bone marrow (n = 14), bone (n = 10), orbit (n = 9), and/or liver (n = 4) disease were treated. Induction chemotherapy usually consisted of vincristine, cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, and etoposide. The high-dose chemotherapy regimen included carboplatin and thiotepa alone (n = 1) or with etoposide (n = 5) or topotecan (n = 7). RESULTS: Bone marrow cleared at first post-initiation of chemotherapy examination in all patients and stem cells were harvested after a median of 3.5 cycles of chemotherapy (range 3-6 cycles). Two patients progressed prior to high-dose chemotherapy and died. Thirteen received high-dose chemotherapy at a median of 6 months post-diagnosis of metastases (range 4-8 months). Ten are retinoblastoma-free in first remission at a median follow-up of 103 months (range 34-202 months) while three recurred (two in the CNS, one in the mandible) 14-20 months post-diagnosis of metastases. Retinoblastoma-free and event-free survival at 5 years are 67% (95% confidence interval 38-85%) and 59% (95% confidence interval 31-79%). Six of the 10 survivors received radiation therapy. Three patients developed secondary osteosarcoma 14, 4, and 9 years after diagnosis of metastatic disease. CONCLUSIONS: Intensive multimodality therapy including high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell rescue was curative for the majority of patients with stage 4a metastatic retinoblastoma treated. The contribution of external beam radiation therapy is unclear.[1]


  1. Intensive multimodality therapy for patients with stage 4a metastatic retinoblastoma. Dunkel, I.J., Khakoo, Y., Kernan, N.A., Gershon, T., Gilheeney, S., Lyden, D.C., Wolden, S.L., Orjuela, M., Gardner, S.L., Abramson, D.H. Pediatr. Blood. Cancer (2010) [Pubmed]
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