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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Molecular structure, chromosome assignment, and promoter organization of the human matrix Gla protein gene.

Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is an 84-residue vitamin K-dependent protein initially isolated from bovine bone. MGP is also expressed at high levels in heart, kidney, and lung and is up-regulated by vitamin D in bone cells. To characterize the genomic sequences responsible for the regulated expression of this gene, we screened a human genomic library using a MGP cDNA probe and obtained two clones containing the MGP locus. The human MGP gene spans 3.9 kilobases of chromosomal DNA and consists of four exons separated by three large intervening sequences which account for more than 80% of the gene. Southern analysis of total human genomic DNA indicated the presence of a single copy of the MGP gene. Hybridization of the hMGP cDNA to a series of Chinese Hamster x human hybrid clones assigned this gene to the short arm of the human chromosome 12 (12p). The N-terminal sequences of the known vitamin K-dependent vertebrate proteins reveal a transmembrane signal peptide, followed by a putative gamma-carboxylation recognition site and a Gla-containing domain. Each of these regions correspond to a separate exon in MGP. MGP also contains a fourth exon of unknown function which codes for 11 residues and lies between the transmembrane signal peptide and the putative recognition site for the gamma-carboxylase. This four-exon organization is essentially identical to that of bone Gla protein and is quite different from the two exon organization encoding this region in the other known vitamin K-dependent proteins. Analysis of the MGP gene promoter revealed, in addition to the typical TATA and CAT boxes, the presence of a number of putative regulatory sequences homologous to previously identified hormone and transcription factor responsive elements. In particular, two regions of the promoter were delineated containing possible binding sites for retinoic acid and vitamin D receptors.[1]


  1. Molecular structure, chromosome assignment, and promoter organization of the human matrix Gla protein gene. Cancela, L., Hsieh, C.L., Francke, U., Price, P.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
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