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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Abnormal ambient glucose levels inhibit proteoglycan core protein gene expression and reduce proteoglycan accumulation during chondrogenesis: possible mechanism for teratogenic effects of maternal diabetes.

Using a tissue culture system based on a nearly pure population of avian precartilage mesenchymal cells, we have found that ambient glucose levels as little as 50% lower, or 100% higher, than normally present in embryonic sera are deleterious to cartilage development, as measured by the accumulation of highly sulfated proteoglycan and the corresponding cartilage-specific chondroitin sulfate core protein mRNA. Abnormal glucose concentrations in the ranges studied did not selectively influence cell replication, and the effects on chondrogenesis were not due to differences in overall protein synthesis or glucose utilization in the treatment groups. Core protein gene expression was more severely affected than accumulation of extracellular product, suggesting the existence of posttranscriptional compensatory mechanisms. The sensitivity to ambient glucose levels of both expression of the cartilage-specific chondroitin sulfate core protein gene and the accumulation of the corresponding extracellular matrix macromolecules during chondrogenesis suggest a molecular mechanism for the well-known adverse effect of maternal diabetes on embryonic skeletogenesis. The results further suggest that hypoglycemia resulting from stringent control of diabetes may also be deleterious to skeletal development.[1]


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