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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Complications of caval interruption by Greenfield filter in quadriplegics.

Patients with acutely injured spinal cords are thought to be at increased risk for thromboembolic disease and often have contraindications to anticoagulation therapy. From 1981 to 1986, 13 patients with quadriplegia at the New England Regional Model Spinal Cord Injury Center had caval interruption with a Greenfield filter. Twelve patients had deep venous thrombosis documented by venogram results and one had pulmonary embolism documented by arteriogram results. "Quad cough" chest physical therapy was required for mobilization of pulmonary secretions in nine patients. Follow-up abdominal x-ray results revealed significant abnormalities referrable to the filter in five patients having undergone "quad cough" therapy. Four patients had distal migration of the filter; three of the four had deformation of the filter. Laparotomy for bowel perforation was required in two of these patients. Quadriplegia requiring vigorous chest physical therapy ("quad cough") for pulmonary toilet may be a contraindication to caval interruption by Greenfield filter. Alternative techniques in the management of patients with quadriplegia and pulmonary compromise must be considered.[1]


  1. Complications of caval interruption by Greenfield filter in quadriplegics. Balshi, J.D., Cantelmo, N.L., Menzoian, J.O. J. Vasc. Surg. (1989) [Pubmed]
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