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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Pathogenesis of cleft palate in Treacher Collins, Nager, and Miller syndromes.

Abnormalities of the secondary palate were studied in an animal model in which features of Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) and Nager or Miller syndromes (both of which are facially similar to Treacher Collins, but include limb malformations) were induced by acute maternal exposure to 13-cis-retinoic acid (13-cis-RA, isotretinoin, Accutane). Previous work in our laboratory has illustrated that excessive cell death in the proximal aspect of the maxillary and mandibular prominences of the first visceral arch and in the apical ectodermal ridge of the limb bud probably accounts for the characteristic craniofacial and limb abnormalities observed (Sulik et al, 1987; Sulik and Dehart, 1988). The current study shows that maternal treatment with 400 mg per kilogram 13-cis-RA at 8 days 14 hours (8d14hr) or 9d6hr post fertilization results in abnormalities of the secondary palate that vary in incidence and severity. Following the earlier treatment time, 82 percent (68 of 74) of the 18d fetuses were affected, with, severely hypoplastic, unfused palatal shelves present in 34 percent (25 of 74). The less severely affected fetuses had malformations that involved primarily the posterior aspect of the palatal shelves. This malformation (foreshortening of the posterior portion of the palate) constituted the major developmental alteration that resulted from treatment at the later time, at which time a 52 percent (26 of 50) malformation incidence was seen. The change in pattern of malformations with treatment time is consistent with the changing pattern of programmed cell death, which was observed to occur in the first visceral arch.[1]


  1. Pathogenesis of cleft palate in Treacher Collins, Nager, and Miller syndromes. Sulik, K.K., Smiley, S.J., Turvey, T.A., Speight, H.S., Johnston, M.C. The Cleft palate journal. (1989) [Pubmed]
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