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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Replacements of lysine 32 in yeast cytochrome c. Effects on the binding and reactivity with physiological partners.

Lysine 32 has been previously implicated by chemical modification and modeling studies as a key component of the domain which controls recognition and binding of cytochrome c to its physiological partners, e.g. cytochrome b2, cytochrome c peroxidase, and cytochrome oxidase. In order to quantitate the importance of this residue, we have investigated the role of Lys-32 in the reactivity of cytochrome c in redox reactions in vitro and in vivo with protein partners by using a series of altered forms of iso-1-cytochrome c from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in which Lys-32 is replaced by Leu-32, Gln-32, Trp-32, and Tyr-32. Leu-32 and Gln-32 represent substitutions which change charge without seriously affecting the steric bulk of the side chain or the stability of the protein. For the Leu-32- and Gln-32-altered proteins, steady state kinetic studies with cytochrome c peroxidase, cytochrome b2, and cytochrome oxidase showed that neither of the steady state kinetic parameters, Km nor Vmax, were substantially modified by mutation. Studies of single turnover kinetics with a small molecule (ascorbate) or within bound complexes with either cytochrome b5 or cytochrome c peroxidase demonstrated that redox kinetics are only slightly affected by these substitutions. NMR experiments demonstrated that the Gln-32-altered protein can still bind strongly to a physiological partner, cytochrome c peroxidase. Growth in lactate medium demonstrated that the activity in vivo compared with the normal value was reduced to only 85% with the Gln-32- and Leu-32-altered proteins and to 65% with the Trp-32- and Tyr-32-altered proteins. These findings suggest that the evolutionary invariance of Lys-32 reflects only small quantitative changes in the binding and reactivity of cytochrome c.[1]


  1. Replacements of lysine 32 in yeast cytochrome c. Effects on the binding and reactivity with physiological partners. Das, G., Hickey, D.R., Principio, L., Conklin, K.T., Short, J., Miller, J.R., McLendon, G., Sherman, F. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
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