The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Neuropeptides: anticonvulsant and convulsant mechanisms in epileptic model systems and in humans.

Neuropeptides represent a new class of compounds with important implications for the understanding of the mechanisms and treatment of epileptic disorders. Several systems of peptide modulators--in particular the opioid-like peptides, vasopressin, somatostatin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and ACTH--have partially demonstrated endogenous roles in some forms of epilepsy. Seizures and stressful situations may release endogenous opioid peptides and mediate postictal depression and postictal seizure refractoriness. Vasopressin is believed to increase susceptibility to convulsions and may be involved in the pathogenesis of febrile convulsions. Derangements in TRH regulation may lower thresholds for seizure expression by regulating arousal systems; however, some TRH analogs have proven to be effective anticonvulsants. Long-term alterations in somatostatin regulation could be components of focal epilepsies. ACTH is particularly useful in the treatment of infantile spasms. Pharmacological effects of these and other peptides have potentials for defining new classes of anticonvulsants. Cholecystokinin (CCK) and its analogs, the opioid peptides beta-endorphin and FK33824, TRH analogs, and several dipeptides exhibit potent anticonvulsant properties in chemical, electroshock, and genetic model screens. Convulsant actions of CRF, somatostatin, TRH, vasopressin, and high doses of endorphin or enkephalins may provide new tools to study regulatory mechanisms of cerebral excitability. The enkephalin epileptogenic effect is being developed as a predictive tool for new anti-petit mal anticonvulsants. Advances in molecular biology have identified the genes of particular peptide families. A concept has developed that the large propeptide precursors, coded by these genes, whose processing leads to functional peptide formation and release, regulate peptidergic humoral responses to external stimuli. This idea may have particular application in the understanding of the genetic basis of some seizure states. Techniques for amplification of mRNA expression have identified specific neuronal proteins and peptides. Knowledge of protein and propeptide structural cleavage sites has suggested previously unknown candidates for modular systems in epileptic states. Technological advances in automated peptide sequencing and synthesis have allowed the development of metabolically resistant analogs and antagonist peptides. The anticonvulsant potencies of CCK, TRH, and opioid peptides have been defined more clearly with these methods.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[1]


  1. Neuropeptides: anticonvulsant and convulsant mechanisms in epileptic model systems and in humans. Bajorek, J.G., Lee, R.J., Lomax, P. Advances in neurology. (1986) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities