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Chemical Compound Review

Thypinone     (2S)-N-[(2S)-1-[(2S)-2...

Synonyms: Lopremone, protirelin, Thyroliberin, Relefact TRH, ABBOTT-38579, ...
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Disease relevance of protirelin


Psychiatry related information on protirelin


High impact information on protirelin


Chemical compound and disease context of protirelin


Biological context of protirelin


Anatomical context of protirelin


Associations of protirelin with other chemical compounds

  • The responsiveness on the two hemispheres to TRH and AcCho in mRNA-injected oocytes is opposite to that for the common intrinsic AcCho response in that there is a much greater response when agonist is applied at the animal rather than the vegetal hemisphere [28].
  • Strong stimulation of either Ca(2+) entry (by depolarization with high K(+) or acethylcholine) or Ca(2+) release from the intracellular Ca(2+) stores (by stimulation with caffeine, UTP, bradykinin, or thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)) produced similar Ca(2+) signals in cytosol and nucleus [29].
  • These data indicate that dexamethasone a) suppresses TSH secretion without increasing fT3 and fT4 and b) blunts the TSH, but not the PRL response, to TRH [30].
  • Paradoxical responsiveness of adrenocorticotropin and cortisol to thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) in pregnant women. Evidence for intermediate lobe activity [31]?
  • Similar to its effect on TRH modulation of I(K), lidocaine (100 microM) attenuated the inhibition of Ca++ channels in GH3 cells by somatostatin (1 microM) [32].

Gene context of protirelin


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of protirelin

  • Truncal vagotomy prevented the central inhibitory action of TRH but not that of CGRP, whereas noradrenergic blockade prevented the central inhibitory action of CGRP but not that of TRH [27].
  • In the third patient, TSH response to TRH went from subnormal to normal after treatment with growth hormone and thyroxine [36].
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptors. Localization by light microscopic autoradiography in rat brain using [3H][3-Me-His2]TRH as the radioligand [37].
  • A low dose (0.5 mg) of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), a short-acting tripeptide with known analeptic properties, was administered to eight depressed patients 5 minutes after ECT session 3 or 4 in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design [38].
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether or not the administration of the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) and TRH test in depressed patients, just before their entering clinical trials, has any impact on their symptoms [39].


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  2. Physiological regulation of hypothalamic TRH transcription in vivo is T3 receptor isoform specific. Guissouma, H., Ghorbel, M.T., Seugnet, I., Ouatas, T., Demeneix, B.A. FASEB J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Lymphocytic thyroiditis and diabetes in the BB/W rat. A new model of autoimmune endocrinopathy. Sternthal, E., Like, A.A., Sarantis, K., Braverman, L.E. Diabetes (1981) [Pubmed]
  4. Characterization of a pituitary stone. von Westarp, C., Weir, B.K., Shnitka, T.K. Am. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  5. TSH and prolactin responses to TRH in patients with premenstrual syndrome. Roy-Byrne, P.P., Rubinow, D.R., Hoban, M.C., Grover, G.N., Blank, D. The American journal of psychiatry. (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Deranged anterior pituitary responsiveness to hypothalamic hormones in depressed patients. Brambilla, F., Smeraldi, E., Sacchetti, E., Negri, F., Cocchi, D., Müller, E.E. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1978) [Pubmed]
  7. DST and TRH stimulation test in mood disorder subtypes. Levy, A.B., Stern, S.L. The American journal of psychiatry. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and Alzheimer's disease. Peabody, C.A., Deblois, T.E., Tinklenberg, J.R. The American journal of psychiatry. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Reduced TSH and prolactin responses to TRH in patients with panic disorder. Roy-Byrne, P.P., Uhde, T.W., Rubinow, D.R., Post, R.M. The American journal of psychiatry. (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Neuroendocrine dysfunction in schizophreniform disorder: correlation with six-month clinical outcome. Targum, S.D. The American journal of psychiatry. (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Independent phosphatidylinositol synthesis in pituitary plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. Imai, A., Gershengorn, M.C. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone--CNS action to stimulate gastric acid secretion. Taché, Y., Vale, W., Brown, M. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  13. Dopamine stimulates the degradation of gonadotropin releasing hormone by rat synaptosomes. Marcano de Cotte, D., De Menezes, C.E., Bennett, G.W., Edwardson, J.A. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  14. Local hormone networks and intestinal T cell homeostasis. Wang, J., Whetsell, M., Klein, J.R. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Thyroid hormone regulates TRH biosynthesis in the paraventricular nucleus of the rat hypothalamus. Segerson, T.P., Kauer, J., Wolfe, H.C., Mobtaker, H., Wu, P., Jackson, I.M., Lechan, R.M. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Hypothyroidism and amenorrhea due to hypothalamic insufficiency. A study in four young women. Woolf, P.D. Am. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  17. Comparison of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), naloxone, and dexamethasone treatments in experimental spinal injury. Faden, A.I., Jacobs, T.P., Smith, M.T., Holaday, J.W. Neurology (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Suppression by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) of growth hormone release induced by arginine and insulin-induced hypoglycemia in man. Maeda, K., Kato, Y., Chihara, K., Ohgo, S., Iwasaki, Y. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1976) [Pubmed]
  19. Symptom profiles of biological markers in depression: a multivariate study. Maes, M., Maes, L., Suy, E. Psychoneuroendocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Imidazole-substituted analogues of TRH limit behavioral deficits after experimental brain trauma. Faden, A.I., Labroo, V.M., Cohen, L.A. J. Neurotrauma (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Decreased TRH receptor mRNA activity precedes homologous downregulation: assay in oocytes. Oron, Y., Straub, R.E., Traktman, P., Gershengorn, M.C. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Evidence for high peptide alpha-amidating activity in the pancrease from neonatal rats. Ouafik, L., Giraud, P., Salers, P., Dutour, A., Castanas, E., Boudouresque, F., Oliver, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. On the neuropharmacology of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). Yarbrough, G.G. Prog. Neurobiol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  24. Functional regulation of Galpha16 by protein kinase C. Aragay, A.M., Quick, M.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Thyrotropin: an endogenous regulator of the in vitro immune response. Kruger, T.E., Smith, L.R., Harbour, D.V., Blalock, J.E. J. Immunol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  26. Test for recovery from hypothyroidism during thyroxine therapy in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Takasu, N., Komiya, I., Asawa, T., Nagasawa, Y., Yamada, T. Lancet (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Regulation of canine gallbladder motility by brain peptides. Lenz, H.J., Zimmerman, F.G., Messmer, B. Gastroenterology (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Differences in receptor-evoked membrane electrical responses in native and mRNA-injected Xenopus oocytes. Oron, Y., Gillo, B., Gershengorn, M.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. Dampening of cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations on propagation to nucleus. Chamero, P., Villalobos, C., Alonso, M.T., García-Sancho, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. The effect of glucocorticoid administration on human pituitary secretion of thyrotropin and prolactin. Re, R.N., Kourides, I.A., Ridgway, E.C., Weintraub, B.D., Maloof, F. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1976) [Pubmed]
  31. Paradoxical responsiveness of adrenocorticotropin and cortisol to thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) in pregnant women. Evidence for intermediate lobe activity? Pieters, G.F., Smals, A.G., Goverde, H.J., Kloppenborg, P.W. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1982) [Pubmed]
  32. Local anesthetics inhibit the G protein-mediated modulation of K+ and Ca++ currents in anterior pituitary cells. Xiong, Z., Bukusoglu, C., Strichartz, G.R. Mol. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Contingent tolerance to the anticonvulsant effects of carbamazepine: relationship to loss of endogenous adaptive mechanisms. Weiss, S.R., Clark, M., Rosen, J.B., Smith, M.A., Post, R.M. Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  34. Regulation by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) of TRH receptor mRNA degradation in rat pituitary GH3 cells. Narayanan, C.S., Fujimoto, J., Geras-Raaka, E., Gershengorn, M.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  35. Prolactin in patients with major depressive disorder and in healthy subjects. I. Cross-sectional study of basal and post-TRH and postdexamethasone prolactin levels. Baumgartner, A., Gräf, K.J., Kürten, I. Biol. Psychiatry (1988) [Pubmed]
  36. The syndrome of basal encephalocele and hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. Lieblich, J.M., Rosen, S.E., Guyda, H., Reardan, J., Schaaf, M. Ann. Intern. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  37. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptors. Localization by light microscopic autoradiography in rat brain using [3H][3-Me-His2]TRH as the radioligand. Mantyh, P.W., Hunt, S.P. J. Neurosci. (1985) [Pubmed]
  38. Effects of low-dose TRH on cognitive deficits in the ECT postictal state. Khan, A., Mirolo, M.H., Claypoole, K., Bhang, J., Cox, G., Horita, A., Tucker, G. The American journal of psychiatry. (1994) [Pubmed]
  39. The influence of DST and TRH test administration on depression assessments: a controlled study. Lafer, B., Fava, M., Hammerness, P., Rosenbaum, J.F. Biol. Psychiatry (1993) [Pubmed]
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