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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Genetic and biochemical characterization of norfloxacin resistance in Escherichia coli.

In Escherichia coli the frequency of spontaneous single-step mutation to high levels of resistance to the newer 4-quinolone agent norfloxacin was confirmed to be over 300-fold lower than that to the older agent nalidixic acid. Serial passage on incremental concentrations of drug was necessary to produce mutants highly resistant to norfloxacin. Genetic analysis of one such highly resistant strain identified two mutations conferring drug resistance. One mutation, nfxA, mapped around 48 min on the E. coli genetic map and was shown to be an allele of gyrA by studies demonstrating an increased drug resistance of DNA gyrase reconstituted with the gyrase A subunit isolated from the mutant strain. These findings also identified the DNA gyrase A subunit as a target of norfloxacin. The second mutation, nfxB, mapped between 20 and 22 min was associated with additional resistances to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and cefoxitin and with decreases in outer membrane porin protein OmpF. The nfxA and nfxB mutations together accounted for most, but not all, of the norfloxacin resistance phenotype of this strain.[1]


  1. Genetic and biochemical characterization of norfloxacin resistance in Escherichia coli. Hooper, D.C., Wolfson, J.S., Souza, K.S., Tung, C., McHugh, G.L., Swartz, M.N. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1986) [Pubmed]
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