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Chemical Compound Review

Nalidixin     1-ethyl-7-methyl-4-oxo-1,8- naphthyridine-3...

Synonyms: Betaxina, Eucistin, Kusnarin, Nevigramon, nalidixic acid, ...
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Disease relevance of Nalidixin

  • METHODS: All 4953 campylobacter isolates from humans received by the Minnesota Department of Health were tested for resistance to nalidixic acid [1].
  • Norfloxacin, an orally administered quinoline carboxylic acid that is structurally related to nalidixic acid, has been shown to be highly active in vitro against penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae [2].
  • The nalidixic acid inhibition is not observed in an E. coli strain containing a nalAr mutation [3].
  • The observation is important because multiply-resistant Enterobacteriaceae maintain their sensitivity to nalidixic acid since extrachromosomal R-factor resistance to nalidixic acid has never been demonstrated and cannot be transferred from one organism to another [4].
  • Nalidixic acid and oxolinic acid were noted to be quite effective in vitro against shigellae and perhaps warrant further clinical study as potential agents for therapy of shigellosis, especially in view of the appearance of isolates with multiple resistance [5].

High impact information on Nalidixin


Chemical compound and disease context of Nalidixin


Biological context of Nalidixin


Anatomical context of Nalidixin


Associations of Nalidixin with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Nalidixin


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Nalidixin


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  2. Treatment of penicillin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae with oral norfloxacin. Crider, S.R., Colby, S.D., Miller, L.K., Harrison, W.O., Kerbs, S.B., Berg, S.W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Promoter-specific inhibition of transcription by antibiotics which act on DNA gyrase. Smith, C.L., Kubo, M., Imamoto, F. Nature (1978) [Pubmed]
  4. Resistance to nalidixic acid. A misconception due to underdosage. Stamey, T.A., Bragonje, J. JAMA (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Antimicrobial resistance of Shigellae isolated in Michigan. Gordon, R.C., Thompson, T.R., Carlson, W., Dyke, J.W., Stevens, L.I. JAMA (1975) [Pubmed]
  6. Nalidixic acid and bacterial chromosome replication. Crumplin, G.C., Smith, J.T. Nature (1976) [Pubmed]
  7. Quinolone resistance from a transferable plasmid. Martínez-Martínez, L., Pascual, A., Jacoby, G.A. Lancet (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Benign intracranial hypertension after nalidixic acid overdose in infants. Mukherjee, A., Dutta, P., Lahiri, M., Sinha, S., Mitra, A.K., Bhattacharya, S.K. Lancet (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Periodic formation of the oriC complex of Escherichia coli. Gayama, S., Kataoka, T., Wachi, M., Tamura, G., Nagai, K. EMBO J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Campylobacter laridis causing bacteremia in an immunosuppressed patient. Nachamkin, I., Stowell, C., Skalina, D., Jones, A.M., Hoop, R.M., Smibert, R.M. Ann. Intern. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. DNA gyrase inhibitors block development of Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SP01. Alonso, J.C., Sarachu, A.N., Grau, O. J. Virol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  12. Comparison of norfloxacin and nalidixic acid for treatment of dysentery caused by Shigella dysenteriae type 1 in adults. Rogerie, F., Ott, D., Vandepitte, J., Verbist, L., Lemmens, P., Habiyaremye, I. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Epidemiology of nalidixic acid resistance and TEM-1- and TEM-52-mediated ampicillin resistance of Shigella sonnei isolates obtained in Korea between 1980 and 2000. Jeong, Y.S., Lee, J.C., Kang, H.Y., Yu, H.S., Lee, E.Y., Choi, C.H., Tae, S.H., Lee, Y.C., Cho, D.T., Seol, S.Y. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. A massive epidemic of multidrug-resistant typhoid fever in Tajikistan associated with consumption of municipal water. Mermin, J.H., Villar, R., Carpenter, J., Roberts, L., Samaridden, A., Gasanova, L., Lomakina, S., Bopp, C., Hutwagner, L., Mead, P., Ross, B., Mintz, E.D. J. Infect. Dis. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Selective antimicrobial modulation as prophylaxis against infection during granulocytopenia: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole vs. nalidixic acid. Wade, J.C., de Jongh, C.A., Newman, K.A., Crowley, J., Wiernik, P.H., Schimpff, S.C. J. Infect. Dis. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Isopentenyladenine as a mediator of mevalonate-regulated DNA replication. Huneeus, V.Q., Wiley, M.H., Siperstein, M.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  17. A yeast excision-repair gene is inducible by DNA damaging agents. Robinson, G.W., Nicolet, C.M., Kalainov, D., Friedberg, E.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Mechanism of phage Mu-1 integration: nalidixic acid treatment causes clustering of Mu-1-induced mutations near replication origin. Paolozzi, L., Jucker, R., Calef, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  19. Novobiocin, nalidixic acid, etoposide, and 4'-(9-acridinylamino)methanesulfon-m-anisidide effects on G2 and mitotic Chinese hamster ovary cell progression. Rowley, R., Kort, L. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Induction by mitomycin C of recA protein synthesis in bacteria and spheroplasts. Giacomoni, P.U. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. Effect of the bacterial DNA gyrase inhibitors, novobiocin, nalidixic acid, and oxolinic acid, on oxidative phosphorylation. Gallagher, M., Weinberg, R., Simpson, M.V. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by nalidixic acid. Dan, M., Aderka, D., Topilsky, M., Livni, E., Levo, Y. Arch. Intern. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. Factors governing the emergence of resistance to nalidixic acid in treatment of urinary tract infection. Greenwood, D., O'Grady, F. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1977) [Pubmed]
  24. Evidence that novobiocin and nalidixic acid do not inhibit excision repair in u.v.-irradiated human skin fibroblasts at a pre-incision step. Keyse, S.M., Tyrrell, R.M. Carcinogenesis (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. Spontaneous and mutagen-induced deletions: mechanistic studies in Salmonella tester strain TA102. Levin, D.E., Marnett, L.J., Ames, B.N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  26. Effect of UV light on small nuclear RNA synthesis: increased inhibition during postirradiation cell incubation. Morra, D.S., Eliceiri, B.P., Eliceiri, G.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  27. Contact with host cells induces a DNA repair system in pathogenic Neisseriae. Morelle, S., Carbonnelle, E., Matic, I., Nassif, X. Mol. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV on the bacterial chromosome: quinolone-induced DNA cleavage. Chen, C.R., Malik, M., Snyder, M., Drlica, K. J. Mol. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Protein synthesis in bacteriophage ghost-infected cells. Takeishi, K., Kaji, A. J. Virol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  30. groEL and dnaK genes of Escherichia coli are induced by UV irradiation and nalidixic acid in an htpR+-dependent fashion. Krueger, J.H., Walker, G.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  31. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and overexpression of the bacteriophage T4 regA gene. Adari, H.Y., Rose, K., Williams, K.R., Konigsberg, W.H., Lin, T.C., Spicer, E.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  32. Beta*, a UV-inducible smaller form of the beta subunit sliding clamp of DNA polymerase III of Escherichia coli. I. Gene expression and regulation. Paz-Elizur, T., Skaliter, R., Blumenstein, S., Livneh, Z. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. Two independent amsacrine-resistant human myeloid leukemia cell lines share an identical point mutation in the 170 kDa form of human topoisomerase II. Lee, M.S., Wang, J.C., Beran, M. J. Mol. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  34. An inhibitor of SOS induction, specified by a plasmid locus in Escherichia coli. Bagdasarian, M., Bailone, A., Bagdasarian, M.M., Manning, P.A., Lurz, R., Timmis, K.N., Devoret, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  35. Lethal fragmentation of bacterial chromosomes mediated by DNA gyrase and quinolones. Malik, M., Zhao, X., Drlica, K. Mol. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  36. Effects of low concentrations of antibiotics on Escherichia coli adhesion. Vosbeck, K., Mett, H., Huber, U., Bohn, J., Petignat, M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1982) [Pubmed]
  37. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity of AB206, a new naphthyridine derivative. Nagate, T., Kurashige, S., Mitsuhashi, S. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1980) [Pubmed]
  38. Emergence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli in Europe. Mammeri, H., Van De Loo, M., Poirel, L., Martinez-Martinez, L., Nordmann, P. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
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