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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

Cloranfenicol     2,2-dichloro-N-[1,3- dihydroxy-1-(4...

Synonyms: Amphicol, Amseclor, Anacetin, Biocetin, Chlorsig, ...
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Disease relevance of chloramphenicol


Psychiatry related information on chloramphenicol


High impact information on chloramphenicol


Chemical compound and disease context of chloramphenicol


Biological context of chloramphenicol

  • Investigation of a 4.9-fold increase in Salmonella newport isolations from Californians in 1985 showed that 87 percent of the isolates had an unusual antimicrobial-resistance pattern (including chloramphenicol resistance) and a single, identical plasmid [19].
  • Transfer of murine intracisternal A particle phenotype in chloramphenicol-resistant cytoplasts [20].
  • The complete nucleotide sequence has been determined for the intron, its junctions and the flanking exon regions of the 21S rRNA gene in three genetically characterized strains differing by their omega alleles (omega+, omega- and omega n) and by their chloramphenicol-resistant mutations at the rib-1 locus [21].
  • We have mapped a transcriptional regulatory sequence within the 1.0 kb noncoding region of the bovine papilloma virus (BPV-1) genome, using an enhancer dependent expression vector for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase [22].
  • Inhibition of protein synthesis during the lytic cycle with chloramphenicol inhibited Mu DNA synthesis with a half-life of approximately 3 min, demonstrating a need for continued protein synthesis to maintain Mu DNA replication [4].

Anatomical context of chloramphenicol


Associations of chloramphenicol with other chemical compounds


Gene context of chloramphenicol


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of chloramphenicol


  1. Stringent regulation of stably integrated chloramphenicol acetyl transferase genes by E. coli lac repressor in monkey cells. Figge, J., Wright, C., Collins, C.J., Roberts, T.M., Livingston, D.M. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. Chloramphenicol-resistant Salmonella newport traced through hamburger to dairy farms. Ryan, C.P., Steele, J.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Reduction of mortality in chloramphenicol-treated severe typhoid fever by high-dose dexamethasone. Hoffman, S.L., Punjabi, N.H., Kumala, S., Moechtar, M.A., Pulungsih, S.P., Rivai, A.R., Rockhill, R.C., Woodward, T.E., Loedin, A.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Instability of transposase activity: evidence from bacteriophage mu DNA replication. Pato, M.L., Reich, C. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Ocular chloramphenicol and aplastic anemia. Fraunfelder, F.T., Bagby, G.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  6. Chloramphenicol administration during brain development: impairment of avoidance learning in adulthood. Bertolini, A., Poggioli, R. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. Chloramphenicol decreases brain glucose utilization and modifies the sleep-wake cycle architecture in rats. Moulin-Sallanon, M., Millet, P., Rousset, C., Zimmer, L., Debilly, G., Petit, J.M., Cespuglio, R., Magistretti, P., Ibáñez, V. J. Neurochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Bioactive polymers XXXIII. Synthesis and evaluation of some pharmacological characteristics of chloramphenicol immobilized on Biozan R. Simionescu, C., Popa, M.I., Dumitriu, S. Biomaterials (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Reversal of rapid eye movement sleep without atonia by chloramphenicol. Aguilar-Roblero, R., Arankowsky, G., Drucker-Colin, R., Morrison, A.R., Bayon, A. Brain Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. High-level chloramphenicol resistance in Neisseria meningitidis. Galimand, M., Gerbaud, G., Guibourdenche, M., Riou, J.Y., Courvalin, P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Tumor suppressor p53 is a direct transcriptional activator of the human bax gene. Miyashita, T., Reed, J.C. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. PDGF B-chain in neurons of the central nervous system, posterior pituitary, and in a transgenic model. Sasahara, M., Fries, J.W., Raines, E.W., Gown, A.M., Westrum, L.E., Frosch, M.P., Bonthron, D.T., Ross, R., Collins, T. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Amplification, expression, and packaging of foreign gene by influenza virus. Luytjes, W., Krystal, M., Enami, M., Pavin, J.D., Palese, P. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Emergence of multiply resistant pneumococci. Jacobs, M.R., Koornhof, H.J., Robins-Browne, R.M., Stevenson, C.M., Vermaak, Z.A., Freiman, I., Miller, G.B., Witcomb, M.A., Isaäcson, M., Ward, J.I., Austrian, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. Absorption of chloramphenicol sodium succinate after intramuscular administration in children. Shann, F., Linnemann, V., Mackenzie, A., Barker, J., Gratten, M., Crinis, N. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Aplastic anemia after parenteral chloramphenicol: warning renewed. Plaut, M.E., Best, W.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  17. A DNA binding protein regulated by IL-4 and by differentiation in B cells. Boothby, M., Gravallese, E., Liou, H.C., Glimcher, L.H. Science (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Yersinia enteritis and enterocolitis: gastroenterological aspects. Vantrappen, G., Ponette, E., Geboes, K., Bertrand, P. Gastroenterology (1977) [Pubmed]
  19. Chloramphenicol-resistant Salmonella newport traced through hamburger to dairy farms. A major persisting source of human salmonellosis in California. Spika, J.S., Waterman, S.H., Hoo, G.W., St Louis, M.E., Pacer, R.E., James, S.M., Bissett, M.L., Mayer, L.W., Chiu, J.Y., Hall, B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Transfer of murine intracisternal A particle phenotype in chloramphenicol-resistant cytoplasts. Malech, H.L., Wivel, N.A. Cell (1976) [Pubmed]
  21. Sequence of the intron and flanking exons of the mitochondrial 21S rRNA gene of yeast strains having different alleles at the omega and rib-1 loci. Dujon, B. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  22. Transactivation of a bovine papilloma virus transcriptional regulatory element by the E2 gene product. Spalholz, B.A., Yang, Y.C., Howley, P.M. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  23. Injection of mitochondria into human cells leads to a rapid replacement of the endogenous mitochondrial DNA. King, M.P., Attardi, G. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Low-dose chloramphenicol stimulates granulocyte/monocyte colony-forming units. Bostrom, B., Smith, K., Ramsay, N.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  25. Chloramphenicol-sensitive labelling of protein in microsomes of Neurospora crassa. Macklin, W.B., Meyer, D.J., Woodward, D.O., Erickson, S.K. Nature (1977) [Pubmed]
  26. Translational potentiation of messenger RNA with secondary structure in Xenopus. Fu, L.N., Ye, R.Q., Browder, L.W., Johnston, R.N. Science (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. cis-acting sequences required for class II gene regulation by interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha in a murine macrophage cell line. Freund, Y.R., Dedrick, R.L., Jones, P.P. J. Exp. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  28. Point mutation causing a single amino acid substitution in the hormone binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor in familial glucocorticoid resistance. Hurley, D.M., Accili, D., Stratakis, C.A., Karl, M., Vamvakopoulos, N., Rorer, E., Constantine, K., Taylor, S.I., Chrousos, G.P. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  29. A mutant cell line derived from NIH/3T3 cells: two oncogenes required for in vitro transformation. Katz, E., Carter, B.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. Salmonella typhimurium resistant to silver nitrate, chloramphenicol, and ampicillin. McHugh, G.L., Moellering, R.C., Hopkins, C.C., Swartz, M.N. Lancet (1975) [Pubmed]
  31. Outbreak of multiresistant non-encapsulated Haemophilus influenzae infections in a pulmonary rehabilitation centre. Sturm, A.W., Mostert, R., Rouing, P.J., van Klingeren, B., van Alphen, L. Lancet (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. Interferon enhances tumor necrosis factor-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (CD106) expression in human endothelial cells by an interferon-related factor 1-dependent pathway. Lechleitner, S., Gille, J., Johnson, D.R., Petzelbauer, P. J. Exp. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. The AP-1 site at -150 bp, but not the NF-kappa B site, is likely to represent the major target of protein kinase C in the interleukin 2 promoter. Jain, J., Valge-Archer, V.E., Sinskey, A.J., Rao, A. J. Exp. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  34. Transcription of the murine iNOS gene is inhibited by docosahexaenoic acid, a major constituent of fetal and neonatal sera as well as fish oils. Khair-El-Din, T., Sicher, S.C., Vazquez, M.A., Chung, G.W., Stallworth, K.A., Kitamura, K., Miller, R.T., Lu, C.Y. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Functional analysis of the human vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 promoter. Neish, A.S., Williams, A.J., Palmer, H.J., Whitley, M.Z., Collins, T. J. Exp. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  36. Blocking the transcription factor E2F/DP by dominant-negative mutants in a normal breast epithelial cell line efficiently inhibits apoptosis and induces tumor growth in SCID mice. Bargou, R.C., Wagener, C., Bommert, K., Arnold, W., Daniel, P.T., Mapara, M.Y., Grinstein, E., Royer, H.D., Dörken, B. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  37. Multiply resistant pneumococcus causing meningitis: its epidemiology within a day-care centre. Radetsky, M.S., Istre, G.R., Johansen, T.L., Parmelee, S.W., Lauer, B.A., Wiesenthal, A.M., Glode, M.P. Lancet (1981) [Pubmed]
  38. Chloramphenicol alone versus chloramphenicol plus penicillin for bacterial meningitis in children. Shann, F., Barker, J., Poore, P. Lancet (1985) [Pubmed]
  39. Helicobacter pylori induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 through activation of nuclear factor kappaB. Mori, N., Sato, H., Hayashibara, T., Senba, M., Geleziunas, R., Wada, A., Hirayama, T., Yamamoto, N. Gastroenterology (2003) [Pubmed]
  40. Reciprocal regulation of alpha-fetoprotein and albumin gene expression by butyrate in human hepatoma cells. Tsutsumi, T., Ido, A., Nakao, K., Hamasaki, K., Kato, Y., Ohtsuru, A., Nakata, K., Tamaoki, T., Nagataki, S. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
  41. Failure of chloramphenicol therapy in penicillin-resistant pneumococcal meningitis. Friedland, I.R., Klugman, K.P. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
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