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Chemical Compound Review

Noroxin     1-ethyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-7- piperazin-1-yl...

Synonyms: norfloxacin, AM-715, MK-366, AM-0715, MK-0366, ...
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Disease relevance of norfloxacin


Psychiatry related information on norfloxacin


High impact information on norfloxacin


Chemical compound and disease context of norfloxacin


Biological context of norfloxacin

  • The purpose of the present study was to determine whether changes to the gut flora that occur following norfloxacin-induced selective bowel decontamination alter hepatic regenerative activity [15].
  • Norfloxacin was administered to reduce intestinal bacterial translocation [4].
  • METHODS: Proinflammatory cytokine levels, Akt and NOS activities, eNOS phosphorylation, and NOS expressions were assessed in aorta from norfloxacin-treated and untreated cirrhotic rats [4].
  • Norfloxacin reduces aortic NO synthases and proinflammatory cytokine up-regulation in cirrhotic rats: role of Akt signaling [4].
  • The binding of norfloxacin to DNA plasmids is nonintercalative, as shown by the fact that the drug binds preferentially to single-stranded DNA rather than to double-stranded DNA [16].

Anatomical context of norfloxacin


Associations of norfloxacin with other chemical compounds


Gene context of norfloxacin

  • Instead, norfloxacin causes DNA damage, as evidenced by the induction of the SOS pathway for DNA repair; the increase in susceptibility to the drug by mutations in genes for DNA repair pathways including recA, recB, and uvrD; and the efficient detergent-induced linearization of plasmid DNA in drug-treated cells [25].
  • To test this hypothesis, we determined whether macrophage sequestration, lung iNOS expression and activity, and HPS severity were decreased after norfloxacin was given for 5 weeks to prevent Gram-negative bacterial translocation in rats with common bile duct ligation-induced cirrhosis [26].
  • The same experiment with a non-Ts background revealed a twofold increase in the norfloxacin MIC at both 30 and 42 degrees C. These data identify the nfxD conditional resistance locus as a mutant allele of parE [27].
  • Cells of E. coli transformed with a plasmid carrying the norM gene showed elevated energy-dependent efflux of norfloxacin [28].
  • Four parent isolates exhibited a single mutation in gyrA which required < or = 12 mg/L of norfloxacin to be inhibited [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of norfloxacin


  1. Treatment of penicillin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae with oral norfloxacin. Crider, S.R., Colby, S.D., Miller, L.K., Harrison, W.O., Kerbs, S.B., Berg, S.W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Selective intestinal decontamination prevents spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Soriano, G., Guarner, C., Teixidó, M., Such, J., Barrios, J., Enríquez, J., Vilardell, F. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Norfloxacin prevents bacterial infection in cirrhotics with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Soriano, G., Guarner, C., Tomás, A., Villanueva, C., Torras, X., González, D., Sainz, S., Anguera, A., Cussó, X., Balanzó, J. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Norfloxacin reduces aortic NO synthases and proinflammatory cytokine up-regulation in cirrhotic rats: role of Akt signaling. Tazi, K.A., Moreau, R., Hervé, P., Dauvergne, A., Cazals-Hatem, D., Bert, F., Poirel, O., Rabiller, A., Lebrec, D. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Treatment of adult gonococcal keratoconjunctivitis with oral norfloxacin. Kestelyn, P., Bogaerts, J., Stevens, A.M., Piot, P., Meheus, A. Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. An unusual hallucination with norfloxacin. Rataboli, P.V., D'Souza, R.S., Dhume, V.G. The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Fluoroquinolone-induced motor changes in the guinea-pig isolated ileum. Di Nucci, A., Candura, S.M., Tagliani, M., D'Agostino, G., Spelta, V., Fiori, E., Ricotti, P., Tonini, M. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Increase in Candida krusei infection among patients with bone marrow transplantation and neutropenia treated prophylactically with fluconazole. Wingard, J.R., Merz, W.G., Rinaldi, M.G., Johnson, T.R., Karp, J.E., Saral, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Topoisomerase IV, not gyrase, decatenates products of site-specific recombination in Escherichia coli. Zechiedrich, E.L., Khodursky, A.B., Cozzarelli, N.R. Genes Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization induces cell death in a mitochondrion-dependent fashion. Boya, P., Andreau, K., Poncet, D., Zamzami, N., Perfettini, J.L., Metivier, D., Ojcius, D.M., Jäättelä, M., Kroemer, G. J. Exp. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Norfloxacin vs Ceftriaxone in the Prophylaxis of Infections in Patients With Advanced Cirrhosis and Hemorrhage. Fern??ndez, J., Del Arbol, L.R., G??mez, C., Durandez, R., Serradilla, R., Guarner, C., Planas, R., Arroyo, V., Navasa, M. Gastroenterology (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Norfloxacin: a new targeted fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agent. Wolfson, J.S., Hooper, D.C. Ann. Intern. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of fluoroquinolone on the enhanced nitric oxide-induced peripheral vasodilation seen in cirrhosis. Chin-Dusting, J.P., Rasaratnam, B., Jennings, G.L., Dudley, F.J. Ann. Intern. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Antibiotics as intermicrobial signaling agents instead of weapons. Linares, J.F., Gustafsson, I., Baquero, F., Martinez, J.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Selective bowel decontamination does not alter hepatic regeneration in rats. MacIntosh, E.L., Gauthier, T., Harding, G.K., Minuk, G.Y. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Mechanism of inhibition of DNA gyrase by analogues of nalidixic acid: the target of the drugs is DNA. Shen, L.L., Pernet, A.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Oral norfloxacin for prevention of gram-negative bacterial infections in patients with acute leukemia and granulocytopenia. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Karp, J.E., Merz, W.G., Hendricksen, C., Laughon, B., Redden, T., Bamberger, B.J., Bartlett, J.G., Saral, R., Burke, P.J. Ann. Intern. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Effect of selective bowel decontamination with norfloxacin on spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, translocation, and survival in an animal model of cirrhosis. Runyon, B.A., Borzio, M., Young, S., Squier, S.U., Guarner, C., Runyon, M.A. Hepatology (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of inoculum size on in vitro activity of norfloxacin against fecal anaerobic bacteria. Rationale for selective decontamination of the digestive tract. Goldstein, E.J., Citron, D.M., Corrado, M.L. Am. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Gemfibrozil enhances the listeriacidal effects of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in J774 macrophages. Rudin, D.E., Gao, P.X., Cao, C.X., Neu, H.C., Silverstein, S.C. J. Exp. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Randomised trial of prevention of biliary stent occlusion by ursodeoxycholic acid plus norfloxacin. Barrioz, T., Ingrand, P., Besson, I., de Ledinghen, V., Silvain, C., Beauchant, M. Lancet (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Selective intestinal decontamination increases serum and ascitic fluid C3 levels in cirrhosis. Such, J., Guarner, C., Soriano, G., Teixidó, M., Barrios, J., Tena, F., Méndez, C., Enríquez, J., Rodríguez, J.L., Vilardell, F. Hepatology (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Increased lipopolysaccharide binding protein in cirrhotic patients with marked immune and hemodynamic derangement. Albillos, A., de la Hera, A., González, M., Moya, J.L., Calleja, J.L., Monserrat, J., Ruiz-del-Arbol, L., Alvarez-Mon, M. Hepatology (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Influence of renal function on the pharmacokinetics of lomefloxacin compared with other fluoroquinolones. Blum, R.A. Am. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. The mechanism of inhibition of topoisomerase IV by quinolone antibacterials. Khodursky, A.B., Cozzarelli, N.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Prevention of gram-negative translocation reduces the severity of hepatopulmonary syndrome. Rabiller, A., Nunes, H., Lebrec, D., Tazi, K.A., Wartski, M., Dulmet, E., Libert, J.M., Mougeot, C., Moreau, R., Mazmanian, M., Humbert, M., Hervé, P. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Quinolone resistance locus nfxD of Escherichia coli is a mutant allele of the parE gene encoding a subunit of topoisomerase IV. Breines, D.M., Ouabdesselam, S., Ng, E.Y., Tankovic, J., Shah, S., Soussy, C.J., Hooper, D.C. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. NorM, a putative multidrug efflux protein, of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and its homolog in Escherichia coli. Morita, Y., Kodama, K., Shiota, S., Mine, T., Kataoka, A., Mizushima, T., Tsuchiya, T. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Mechanisms involved in the development of resistance to fluoroquinolones in Escherichia coli isolates. Tavío, M.M., Vila, J., Ruiz, J., Ruiz, J., Martín-Sánchez, A.M., Jiménez de Anta, M.T. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Antibiotic efficacy in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth-related chronic diarrhea: a crossover, randomized trial. Attar, A., Flourié, B., Rambaud, J.C., Franchisseur, C., Ruszniewski, P., Bouhnik, Y. Gastroenterology (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Quinolone binding to DNA is mediated by magnesium ions. Palù, G., Valisena, S., Ciarrocchi, G., Gatto, B., Palumbo, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
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