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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Intestinal first pass metabolism of amygdalin in the rat in vitro.

The intestinal first pass metabolism of amygdalin has been investigated in rat small intestine in vitro. The results show that amygdalin is hydrolyzed to prunasin, essentially in the wall of the proximal jejunum. This specific beta(1-6)hydrolytic cleavage of the terminal glucose residue is pH-dependent and can be inhibited by glucono-delta-lactone, a potent inhibitor of the lysosomal beta-glucosidase of the rat intestine. No substrate competition between phloridzin and lactose vs amygdalin was noted. None of the more common soluble beta- or alpha-enzymatic activities of mammalian intestine (alpha-glucosidase, alpha-amylase) or mammalian liver (beta-galactosidase, beta-glucuronidase) were capable of catalyzing the hydrolysis of the terminal glucose from amygdalin at pH's 5.0, 7.0 or 9. 0. Furthermore, no metabolic activity of isolated rat livers toward amygdalin and prunasin was observed within two hours of recirculating perfusion. However, cecal contents of conventional rats, exhibited both amygdalin- and prunasin-hydrolyzing activities. The resulting mandelonitrile dissociates spontaneously into cyanide and benzaldehyde. Therefore, our findings indicate that metabolism of amygdalin to prunasin occurring in the proximal part of jejunum is apparently mediated by enzymatic beta(1-6)glucosidase activity of the gut wall. In contrast, the toxicity of amygdalin due to the release of cyanide obviously requires microbiological activities of the gut flora.[1]


  1. Intestinal first pass metabolism of amygdalin in the rat in vitro. Strugala, G.J., Rauws, A.G., Elbers, R. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1986) [Pubmed]
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