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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Effects of combined treatments with selenium, glutathione, and vitamin E on glutathione peroxidase activity, ornithine decarboxylase induction, and complete and multistage carcinogenesis in mouse skin.

Several structurally different tumor promoters altered to various degrees both glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (EC and ornithine decarboxylase ( ODC, L-ornithine carboxy-lyase, EC activities in mouse epidermis in vivo. At 5 h after their application to the skin, the complete tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and the stage 2 promoter mezerein were the most potent in inhibiting GSH peroxidase activity and inducing ODC activity. In comparison, the effects of anthralin, phorbol-12,13-didecanoate, benzoyl peroxide, H2O2, and phorbol-12,13-dibenzoate were much smaller, whereas the nontumor promoter phorbol, the hyperplastic agent ethyl phenylpropiolate, and the stage 1 promoter 4-O-methyl TPA did not alter GSH peroxidase and ODC activities. Various treatments including i.p. injections of 40 micrograms of Na2SeO3 and 100 mumol of GSH and/or topical applications of 40 mumol of D-alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) 20 or 15 min, respectively, before tumor promoter treatment inhibited in an additive manner the effects of either TPA or mezerein on both GSH peroxidase activity and ODC induction. Moreover, these Na2SeO3, GSH, and/or vitamin E treatments inhibited in the same additive manner the tumor-promoting activity of TPA in the initiation-promotion protocol. However, when tested in the 2-stage promotion protocol with 4 doses of TPA followed by twice weekly applications of mezerein, Na2SeO3 plus vitamin E and GSH plus vitamin E treatments inhibited remarkably the tumor-promoting activity of mezerein but were ineffective in the first stage of promotion. The sequence and magnitude for the effects of 7,12-dimethylbenz[alpha]anthracene (DMBA) on GSH peroxidase and ODC activities were very different from those of the tumor promoters. In contrast with their antitumor-promoting activity, the treatments with Na2SeO3 plus vitamin E and GSH plus vitamin E failed to inhibit the carcinogenicity of a single large dose of DMBA and even enhanced the induction of skin tumors by repeated applications of subcarcinogenic doses of DMBA. These results suggest that the promoting component of DMBA carcinogenesis may be different from that of TPA. Moreover, the anticarcinogenicity of Na2SeO3, GSH, and vitamin E may be linked to their ability to facilitate or enhance the activity of the natural GSH-dependent antioxidant protective system of the epidermal cells during the later stages of skin tumor promotion.[1]


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