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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Glutathione conjugation of chlorobenzylidene malononitriles in vitro and the biotransformation to mercapturic acids in rats.

The glutathione conjugation of 2-chloro-, 3-chloro-, 4-chloro- and 2,6-dichlorobenzylidene malononitrile (chloroBMNs) was investigated in vitro. In incubation mixtures containing rat liver cytosol (9000 g), the decrease in the initial amount of glutathione due to the various chloroBMNs ranged from 40 to 60% and occurred both enzymatically and spontaneously at physiological conditions (37 degrees C, pH 7.4). 2,6-DichloroBMN, however, depleted glutathione largely spontaneously (38 +/- 3%). The steric hindrance of the two chlorosubstituents probably plays an important role during the glutathione-S-transferase catalyzed reaction. The hydrolysis of the chloroBMNs to the corresponding chlorobenzaldehydes and malononitrile was studied in a mixture of buffer pH 7.4 and ethanol. The rate of hydrolysis of 2,6-dichloroBMN was slower than those of the related chloroBMNs. This means that 2,6-dichloroBMN will be the most stable compound in the presence of water. Only IP administration of 2-chloroBMN (CS) to adult male Wistar rats gave enhancement of urinary thioether excretion. A thioether could be isolated and was identified as the N-acetyl-S-[2-chlorobenzyl]-L-cysteine. The quantity of this benzylmercapturic acid in the urine of rats amounted to 4.4% dose (0.07 mmol/kg, n = 12). After IP administration of 2-chloro- and 3-chlorobenzaldehyde to rats benzylmercapturic acid excretion in the urine was found to be 7.6 and 1.1% of the dose, respectively. Administration of the related 4-chloro- and 2,6-dichlorobenzaldehyde, however, resulted in no urinary mercapturic acid excretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[1]


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