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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The genetic deficiency of leukocyte surface glycoprotein Mac-1, LFA-1, p150,95 in humans is associated with defective antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in vitro and defective protection against herpes simplex virus infection in vivo.

The role of the Mac-1, LFA-1, p150,95 leukocyte glycoprotein family in mediating antiviral host defense was investigated by utilizing mononuclear cells (MC) obtained from eight patients with a genetic deficiency of Mac-1, LFA-1, and p150,95, and normal MC incubated with subunit-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAb) directed against these glycoproteins. As shown with an in vitro chromium-release cytotoxicity assay to herpes simplex virus (HSV)-infected Chang liver target cells, MC of these patients with the severe phenotype or normal MC preincubated with a combination of MAb against Mac-1 glycoprotein subunits were deficient in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). When used individually, MAb directed at LFA-1-alpha or -beta also inhibited ADCC and natural killer cytotoxicity (NKC). In a single cell agarose assay, MC of Mac-1-deficient patients formed fewer effector-target cell conjugates in the presence of specific anti-HSV antibody. To investigate the in vitro contributions of these glycoproteins to cytotoxic host defense mechanisms, two in vivo adoptive transfer models were explored in which neonatal mice are protected against a lethal HSV challenge by normal human MC plus anti-HSV antibody (in vivo ADCC) or human interferon-alpha (NKC stimulated in vivo). In each model, MC from patients with "severe" or "moderate" phenotypes of Mac-1 deficiency, or normal MC incubated with a combination of anti-LFA-alpha, Mac-1-alpha, p150,95-alpha plus -beta MAb failed to protect neonatal mice against lethal HSV infection. These studies further indicate requirements for adhesion-dependent mechanisms in the mediation of MC-ADCC, and suggest that Mac-1-dependent cellular adhesive properties are necessary for normal cytotoxic functions in vivo in experimental models of human ADCC or interferon-stimulated NKC. These findings, in addition to the recognized occurrence of severe or even lethal viral infections in some Mac-1-deficient patients, suggest that glycoproteins of the Mac-1 family may be important determinants of antiviral host defense.[1]


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