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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Role of head group structure in the phase behavior of amino phospholipids. 2. Lamellar and nonlamellar phases of unsaturated phosphatidylethanolamine analogues.

Three types of analogues of unsaturated phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) have been prepared: phosphatidyl-omega-amino-1-alkanols, N-alkyl-PE's, and C2-alkyl-PE's, with alkyl substitution of carbon-2 of the ethanolamine head group. The physical properties of dioleoyl, dielaidoyl, and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phospholipids with these head groups have been examined by calorimetry, 31P NMR, freeze-fracture electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. N-Alkylation of PE, or substitution of the ethanolamine moiety by 3-amino-1-propanol or 4-amino-1-butanol, decreases the transition temperature of the hydrated gel phase (Tc) and considerably increases the temperature of the lamellar to hexagonal II transition (TH). The pattern of these effects for various PE analogues suggests that head group size and hydrophobicity as well as hydrogen bonding are important determinants of the phase behavior of these lipids. C2-Alkylated PE analogues exhibit several rather surprising properties, notably the ready formation of a quasi-crystalline "high-melting" solid phase even for di-cis-unsaturated species and substantially lower TH values than are observed for the parent PE species. The behavior of these compounds suggests that "hydration forces" can be more important than considerations of lipid "dynamic shape" in predicting the relative stabilities of lamellar vs. nonlamellar phases for at least some zwitterionic phospholipids.[1]


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