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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The content of pentose-cycle intermediates in liver in starved, fed ad libitum and meal-fed rats.

Liver content of pentose-cycle intermediates and the activity of the three major cytoplasmic NADPH-producing enzymes and pentose-cycle enzymes were measured in three dietary states: 48 h-starved rats, rats fed on a standard diet ad libitum, and rats meal-fed with a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet. Measured tissue contents of pentose-cycle intermediates in starved liver were: 6-phosphogluconate, 4.7 +/- 0.5 nmol/g; ribulose 5-P, 3.7 +/- 0.5 nmol/g; xylulose 5-P, 4.3 +/- 0.4 nmol/g; sedoheptulose 7-P, 25.5 +/- 1.3 nmol/g; and combined sedoheptulose 7-P and ribose 5-P, 30.6 +/- 0.7 nmol/g. These values were in good agreement with values calculated from fructose 6-P and free glyceraldehyde 3-P, assuming the major transketolase, transaldolase, ribulose-5-P 3-epimerase and ribose-5-P isomerase reactions were all in near-equilibrium. Similar results were found in animals fed ad libitum. These relationships were not valid in animals fed on a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet, with tissue contents of metabolites in some cases being more than an order of magnitude higher than the calculated values. Measured tissue contents of pentose-cycle intermediates in these animals were: 6-phosphogluconate, 124.2 +/- 13.9 nmol/g; ribulose 5-P, 44.8 +/- 7.1 nmol/g; xylulose 5-P, 77.2 +/- 9.4 nmol/g; sedoheptulose 7-P, 129.9 +/- 10.1 nmol/g; and combined sedoheptulose 7-P and ribose 5-P, 157.0 +/- 11.3 nmol/g. In all animals, regardless of dietary state, tissue content of erythrose 4-P was less than 2 nmol/ml. Liver activities of glucose-6-P dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were increased from 3.5 +/- 0.9 mumol/g and 7.3 +/- 0.5 mumol/min per g in starved animals to 13.2 +/- 1.1 and 10.5 +/- 0.7 mumol/min per g in low-fat high-carbohydrate-fed animals. Despite these changes, the activities of transaldolase (3.4 +/- 0.3 mumol/min per g), transketolase (7.8 +/- 0.2 mumol/min per g) and ribulose-5-P 3-epimerase (7.5 +/- 0.4 mumol/min per g) were not increased in meal-fed animals above those observed in starved animals (3.4 +/- 0.2, 7.1 +/- 0.3 and 8.6 +/- 0.4 mumol/min per g respectively). The increase in the activity of oxidative pentose-cycle enzymes in the absence of any change in the non-oxidative pentose cycle appeared to contribute to the observed disequilibrium in the pentose cycle in animals meal fed on a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet.[1]


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