The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

D-ribose     2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxypentanal

Synonyms: Pectinose, Pentose, Lyxose, D-Lyxose, L-Ribose, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of xylose


Psychiatry related information on xylose


High impact information on xylose

  • Pentose-phosphate-pathway-mediated inhibition of cell death was due to the inhibitory phosphorylation of caspase-2 by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) [10].
  • We show that pentose-phosphate-pathway generation of NADPH is critical for oocyte survival and that the target of this regulation is caspase-2, previously shown to be required for oocyte death in mice [10].
  • It lacks the pentose phosphate cycle and, more unexpectedly, ATP-synthase subunits, which are thought to be essential for life [11].
  • Whatever the chemical determinants by which nature selected RNA as a genetic system, maximization of base-pairing strengths within the domain of pentose-derived oligonucleotide systems was not the critical selection criterion [12].
  • In this study reported here the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the oxidative pentose phosphate shunt, was very low in the human heart and was of the same order of magnitude in the myocardium of various animal species [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of xylose


Biological context of xylose


Anatomical context of xylose


Associations of xylose with other chemical compounds


Gene context of xylose

  • We suggest that loss of GPT1 function results in disruption of the oxidative pentose phosphate cycle, which in turn affects fatty acid biosynthesis [32].
  • The MUR3 gene was cloned positionally and shown to encode a xyloglucan galactosyltransferase that acts specifically on the third xylose residue within the XXXG core structure of xyloglucan [33].
  • Hemolytic anemia in hereditary pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase deficiency: nucleotide inhibition of G6PD and the pentose phosphate shunt [34].
  • Here we report that these two sod1Delta phenotypes were specifically suppressed by elevated expression of the TKL1 gene, encoding transketolase of the pentose phosphate pathway [35].
  • Our studies suggest that this defect results from the impaired redox status of aerobically grown sod1 and zwf1 mutants, implicating Sod1 and the pentose phosphate pathway as being critical for maintenance of the cellular redox state [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of xylose


  1. End-stage renal disease and diabetes catalyze the formation of a pentose-derived crosslink from aging human collagen. Sell, D.R., Monnier, V.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Low-dose growth hormone in adult home parenteral nutrition-dependent short bowel syndrome patients: a positive study. Seguy, D., Vahedi, K., Kapel, N., Souberbielle, J.C., Messing, B. Gastroenterology (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Enhanced glucose absorption in the jejunum of patients with cystic fibrosis. Frase, L.L., Strickland, A.D., Kachel, G.W., Krejs, G.J. Gastroenterology (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, and glycolysis in the uninvolved gastric mucosa of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer patients. Orwell, R.L., Piper, D.W. Gastroenterology (1977) [Pubmed]
  5. Antioxidant defense responses to sleep loss and sleep recovery. Everson, C.A., Laatsch, C.D., Hogg, N. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of casein and casein hydrolysate on small bowel motility and D-xylose absorption in dogs. Defilippi, C., Gómez, E. Neurogastroenterol. Motil. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence of a cDNA clone encoding part of human transketolase. Abedinia, M., Layfield, R., Jones, S.M., Nixon, P.F., Mattick, J.S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of food deprivation on D-xylose absorption test results in mares. Freeman, D.E., Ferrante, P.L., Kronfeld, D.S., Chalupa, W. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of psychological stress on small intestinal motility and bacteria and mucosa in mice. Wang, S.X., Wu, W.C. World J. Gastroenterol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Metabolic regulation of oocyte cell death through the CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation of caspase-2. Nutt, L.K., Margolis, S.S., Jensen, M., Herman, C.E., Dunphy, W.G., Rathmell, J.C., Kornbluth, S. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Reductive evolution suggested from the complete genome sequence of a plant-pathogenic phytoplasma. Oshima, K., Kakizawa, S., Nishigawa, H., Jung, H.Y., Wei, W., Suzuki, S., Arashida, R., Nakata, D., Miyata, S., Ugaki, M., Namba, S. Nat. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Chemical etiology of nucleic acid structure: comparing pentopyranosyl-(2'-->4') oligonucleotides with RNA. Beier, M., Reck, F., Wagner, T., Krishnamurthy, R., Eschenmoser, A. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Ribose intervention in the cardiac pentose phosphate pathway is not species-specific. Zimmer, H.G., Ibel, H., Suchner, U., Schad, H. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Switching substrate preference of thermophilic xylose isomerase from D-xylose to D-glucose by redesigning the substrate binding pocket. Meng, M., Lee, C., Bagdasarian, M., Zeikus, J.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Forskolin specifically inhibits the bacterial galactose-H+ transport protein, GalP. Martin, G.E., Seamon, K.B., Brown, F.M., Shanahan, M.F., Roberts, P.E., Henderson, P.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Intestinal absorptive capacity, intestinal permeability and jejunal histology in HIV and their relation to diarrhoea. Keating, J., Bjarnason, I., Somasundaram, S., Macpherson, A., Francis, N., Price, A.B., Sharpstone, D., Smithson, J., Menzies, I.S., Gazzard, B.G. Gut (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Structures of D-xylose isomerase from Arthrobacter strain B3728 containing the inhibitors xylitol and D-sorbitol at 2.5 A and 2.3 A resolution, respectively. Henrick, K., Collyer, C.A., Blow, D.M. J. Mol. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Role of insulin in the intermediary metabolism of the activated thymic-derived lymphocyte. Helderman, J.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1981) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of growth hormone, glutamine, and diet on adaptation in short-bowel syndrome: a randomized, controlled study. Scolapio, J.S., Camilleri, M., Fleming, C.R., Oenning, L.V., Burton, D.D., Sebo, T.J., Batts, K.P., Kelly, D.G. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Identification of the structural gene for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in yeast. Inactivation leads to a nutritional requirement for organic sulfur. Thomas, D., Cherest, H., Surdin-Kerjan, Y. EMBO J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Three-dimensional structure of endo-1,4-beta-xylanase II from Trichoderma reesei: two conformational states in the active site. Törrönen, A., Harkki, A., Rouvinen, J. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Targeted disruption of the housekeeping gene encoding glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD): G6PD is dispensable for pentose synthesis but essential for defense against oxidative stress. Pandolfi, P.P., Sonati, F., Rivi, R., Mason, P., Grosveld, F., Luzzatto, L. EMBO J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Ribose metabolism and nucleic acid synthesis in normal and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient human erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Roth, E.F., Ruprecht, R.M., Schulman, S., Vanderberg, J., Olson, J.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. Jejunal and ileal absorption in patients with chronic renal disease. Effect of 1alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol. Vergne-Marini, P., Parker, T.F., Pak, C.Y., Hull, A.R., DeLuca, H.F., Fordtran, J.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  25. Relationship between transport of D-xylose and other monosaccharides in jejunal mucosa of children. Heyman, M., Desjeux, J.F., Grasset, E., Dumontier, A.M., Lestradet, H. Gastroenterology (1981) [Pubmed]
  26. Fat digestion and exocrine pancreatic function in primary biliary cirrhosis. Ros, E., García-Pugés, A., Reixach, M., Cusó, E., Rodés, J. Gastroenterology (1984) [Pubmed]
  27. Effect of chenodiol on the small intestine. Unimpaired structure and function during therapy for gallstone dissolution. Casanova, S., Roda, A., Festi, D., Mazzella, G., Aldini, R., Bazzoli, F., Sama, C., Morselli, A.M., Barbara, L., Roda, E. JAMA (1981) [Pubmed]
  28. Potentiation of cholecystokinin-induced exocrine secretion by both exogenous and endogenous insulin in isolated and perfused rat pancreata. Saito, A., Williams, J.A., Kanno, T. J. Clin. Invest. (1980) [Pubmed]
  29. De novo synthesis of purine nucleotides in human peripheral blood leukocytes. Excessive activity of the pathway in hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency. Brosh, S., Boer, P., Kupfer, B., de Vries, A., Sperling, O. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  30. A genetic model for absent chylomicron formation: mice producing apolipoprotein B in the liver, but not in the intestine. Young, S.G., Cham, C.M., Pitas, R.E., Burri, B.J., Connolly, A., Flynn, L., Pappu, A.S., Wong, J.S., Hamilton, R.L., Farese, R.V. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. Effect of changing intestinal flow rate on a measurement of intestinal permeability. Fine, K.D., Santa Ana, C.A., Porter, J.L., Fordtran, J.S. Gastroenterology (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. The Arabidopsis plastidic glucose 6-phosphate/phosphate translocator GPT1 is essential for pollen maturation and embryo sac development. Niewiadomski, P., Knappe, S., Geimer, S., Fischer, K., Schulz, B., Unte, U.S., Rosso, M.G., Ache, P., Flügge, U.I., Schneider, A. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. The MUR3 gene of Arabidopsis encodes a xyloglucan galactosyltransferase that is evolutionarily related to animal exostosins. Madson, M., Dunand, C., Li, X., Verma, R., Vanzin, G.F., Caplan, J., Shoue, D.A., Carpita, N.C., Reiter, W.D. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Hemolytic anemia in hereditary pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase deficiency: nucleotide inhibition of G6PD and the pentose phosphate shunt. Tomoda, A., Noble, N.A., Lachant, N.A., Tanaka, K.R. Blood (1982) [Pubmed]
  35. The yeast copper/zinc superoxide dismutase and the pentose phosphate pathway play overlapping roles in oxidative stress protection. Slekar, K.H., Kosman, D.J., Culotta, V.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. Thyroid growth-blocking antibodies in primary myxoedema. Drexhage, H.A., Bottazzo, G.F., Bitensky, L., Chayen, J., Doniach, D. Nature (1981) [Pubmed]
  37. D-xylose testing: a review. Craig, R.M., Atkinson, A.J. Gastroenterology (1988) [Pubmed]
  38. Excess IL-12 but not IL-23 Accompanies the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Associated With Common Variable Immunodeficiency. Mannon, P.J., Fuss, I.J., Dill, S., Friend, J., Groden, C., Hornung, R., Yang, Z., Yi, C., Quezado, M., Brown, M., Strober, W. Gastroenterology (2006) [Pubmed]
  39. Evaluation of xylose absorption as measured in blood and urine: a one-hour blood xylose screening test in malabsorption. Haeney, M.R., Culank, L.S., Montgomery, R.D., Sammons, H.G. Gastroenterology (1978) [Pubmed]
  40. Molecular cloning, DNA structure and expression of the Escherichia coli D-xylose isomerase. Briggs, K.A., Lancashire, W.E., Hartley, B.S. EMBO J. (1984) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities