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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Detection of the mutagenic activity of lead chromate using a battery of microbial tests.

The potential mutagenicity of the carcinogen lead chromate was tested by the following battery of microbial tests: the Escherichia coli PolA+/PolA- survival test; the Salmonella/microsome His+ reversion assay; the E. coli Trp+ reversion test as a plate assay; the E. coli Gal+ forward mutation test; and the Saccharomyces cerevisiae assay for mitotic recombination. Lead chromate is mutagenic in Salmonella and in Saccharomyces and is thus identified as a microbial mutagen by this battery. Metabolic activation by rat liver homogenate (S9) is not required for the mutagenic activity of lead chromate. The most statistically significant, positive result is found with a supplementary assay, the E. coli fluctuation test. To determine whether the lead ion and/or the chromate ion were responsible for the mutagenicity observed, lead chloride and chromium trioxide (chromic acid) were also tested. In E. coli fluctuation test, the ranges of maximal mutagenicity for chromium trioxide and lead chromate overlap at the concentration 10(-5)M, whereas lead chloride shows no mutagenicity and little lethality at concentrations up to 10(-3)M. Thus, it appears that the chromate ion is responsible for the mutagenicity of lead chromate.[1]


  1. Detection of the mutagenic activity of lead chromate using a battery of microbial tests. Nestmann, E.R., Matula, T.I., Douglas, G.R., Bora, K.C., Kowbel, D.J. Mutat. Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
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