The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Comparison of the in vitro and in vivo hepatic metabolism of the carcinogen 1-nitropyrene.

[4,5,9,10(-3)H]1-nitropyrene was incubated with NADH- or NADPH-fortified rat liver microsomes under an argon atmosphere. Residual substrate and metabolites were extracted with ethyl acetate and analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography. Both reduced and oxidized products were formed: namely, 1-aminopyrene, trans-4,5-dihydroxy-4,5-dihydro-1-nitropyrene, and 3-, 6- and 8-hydroxy-1-nitropyrene. When incubations were conducted with rat liver cytosol, only the reduced products 1-nitrosopyrene and 1-aminopyrene were detected. In parallel experiments, [4,5, 9,10-3H]1-nitropyrene was administered to rats by intravenous injection or gavage and the bile was collected. After 4 h, approximately one-third of the intravenously-administered compound appeared in the bile as O-glucuronides of 3-, 6- and 8-hydroxy-1-nitropyrene, the O-glucuronide of trans-4,5-dihydroxy-4,5-dihydro-1-nitropyrene, and unidentified glutathione conjugates. The same metabolites were found in rats treated with 1-nitropyrene by gavage; however, only 10% of the dose appeared in the bile within 12 h. These studies indicate that both nitroreduction and ring oxidation are involved in the hepatic metabolism of 1-nitropyrene. The importance of these pathways in the etiology of 1-nitropyrene tumorigenesis is discussed.[1]


  1. Comparison of the in vitro and in vivo hepatic metabolism of the carcinogen 1-nitropyrene. Howard, P.C., Flammang, T.J., Beland, F.A. Carcinogenesis (1985) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities