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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Guinea pig striatum as a model of human dopamine deamination: the role of monoamine oxidase isozyme ratio, localization, and affinity for substrate in synaptic dopamine metabolism.

The kinetic properties of type A and type B monoamine oxidase (MAO) were examined in guinea pig striatum, rat striatum, and autopsied human caudate nucleus using 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine (dopamine, DA) as the substrate. MAO isozyme ratio in guinea pig striatum (28% type A/72% type B) was similar to that in human caudate nucleus (25% type A/75% type B) but different from that in rat striatum (76% type A/24% type B). Additional similarities between guinea pig striatum and human caudate nucleus were demonstrated for the affinity constants (Km) of each MAO) isozyme toward DA. Endogenous concentrations of DA, 3-methoxytyramine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and homovanillic acid were also measured in guinea pig and rat striatum following selective type A (clorgyline-treated) and type B (deprenyl-treated) MAO inhibition. In guinea pig, DA metabolism was equally but only partially affected by clorgyline or deprenyl alone. Combined treatment with clorgyline and deprenyl was required for maximal alterations in DA metabolism. By contrast, DA metabolism in rat striatum was extensively altered by clorgyline but unaffected by deprenyl alone. Finally, the deamination of DA in synaptosomes from guinea pig striatum was examined following selective MAO isozyme inhibition. Neither clorgyline nor deprenyl alone reduced synaptosomal DA deamination. However, clorgyline and deprenyl together reduced DA deamination by 94%. These results suggest that the isozyme localization and/or isozyme affinity for DA, rather than the absolute isozyme content, determines the relative importance of type A and type B MAO in synaptic DA deamination. Moreover, based on the enzyme kinetic properties of each MAO isozyme, guinea pig striatum may serve as a suitable model of human DA deamination.[1]


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