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Chemical Compound Review

Dopac     2-(3,4- dihydroxyphenyl)ethanoic acid

Synonyms: Dopacetate, Lopac-D-9128, Dopacetic acid, CHEMBL1284, PubChem15519, ...
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Disease relevance of Homoprotocatechuic acid


Psychiatry related information on Homoprotocatechuic acid


High impact information on Homoprotocatechuic acid


Chemical compound and disease context of Homoprotocatechuic acid


Biological context of Homoprotocatechuic acid

  • Tyrosinase gene correction was also confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing from skin that was positive for DOPA staining and melanin synthesis [14].
  • Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels and vesicular storage capacity matured faster in mesencephalic than in diencephalic cultures, but no sex differences were observed [20].
  • Furthermore, differences in dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels, which were about twice as high on the contralateral side yet still reduced with respect to untreated mice, supported our assumption that the molar TH activity was increased on the untreated side, possibly due to an intrinsic compensatory up-regulation [21].
  • Release of NPY and catecholamines was linear with time; SCG neurons exhibited a basal NPY secretory rate of approximately 0.9-3 fmol NPY immunoreactivity/10(4) cells/hr, and basal DOPAC plus HVA accumulation was about 10-20 pmol total metabolites/10(4) cells/hr [22].
  • The circadian rhythm of DOPAC could be reproducibly demonstrated over at least 4 successive days in individual subjects [23].

Anatomical context of Homoprotocatechuic acid


Associations of Homoprotocatechuic acid with other chemical compounds

  • Ondansetron (0.1 and 1 mg/kg) and (S)-zacopride (0.1 mg/kg), two 5-HT3 antagonists, significantly impaired the increase of accumbal DA release induced by 20 Hz DRN stimulation but did not affect either the decrease of striatal DA release or the increase in DOPAC outflow in both structures [28].
  • At the distal end of the dialysis tube, the Ringer is collected every 10 to 20 min and directly injected into a high performance liquid chromatographer (HPLC) equipped with reverse phase octadecyl sulfate columns which separate DA and its metabolites, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) [29].
  • Seven weeks following reversible chemical lesions produced by Triton X-100, DA and DOPAC levels and tissue weight as well as TH staining in the juxtaglomerular neurons returned to control levels [30].
  • In vivo microdialysis was used to obtain samples for measurements of norepinephrine, dihydroxyphenylglycol, methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol, and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in conscious animals before and after yohimbine injection (1 mg/kg IV) beginning 24 hours after probe implantation [31].
  • Neurofilaments were incubated in the presence of oxidized L-dopa, dopamine, or dopac and then analyzed by SDS-PAGE and protein staining or immunoblotting with monoclonal antibodies specific for neurofilament subunit proteins [32].

Gene context of Homoprotocatechuic acid

  • In contrast, deprenyl, in a dose which almost totally inhibited MAO-B activity in blood platelets, did not appreciably affect the plasma concentrations of DHPG or DOPAC [33].
  • Pretreatment with the receptor antagonists PTH(7-34) or PTHrP(7-34) completely blocked the subsequent DOPAC response to ICV PTH or PTHrP, respectively [34].
  • These results suggest that virally delivered GDNF promotes the recovery of nigral dopaminergic tone (i.e.: increased DA and DOPAC levels) and improves behavioral performance (i.e.: decreased rotations, increased locomotion) in rodents with extensive nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation [35].
  • Furthermore, electrochemical analysis revealed a more than 70% decrease in the levels of dopamine and its metabolites (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid) in the striatum of the WT control COX-1(-/-) and COX-2(-/-) mutant mice [36].
  • There was a significant increase in the area under the curve (AUC) of DOPAC during COMT-inhibition compared to the baseline profile (p = 0.009) [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Homoprotocatechuic acid


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  13. Activation of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway by injection of cholera enterotoxin into the substantia nigra. Quenzer, L.F., Galli, C.L., Neff, N.H. Science (1977) [Pubmed]
  14. Localized in vivo genotypic and phenotypic correction of the albino mutation in skin by RNA-DNA oligonucleotide. Alexeev, V., Igoucheva, O., Domashenko, A., Cotsarelis, G., Yoon, K. Nat. Biotechnol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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  16. Transient hypoxia alters striatal catecholamine metabolism in immature brain: an in vivo microdialysis study. Gordon, K., Statman, D., Johnston, M.V., Robinson, T.E., Becker, J.B., Silverstein, F.S. J. Neurochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Parkinson's disease. The possible relationship of laterality to dementia and neurochemical findings. Direnfeld, L.K., Albert, M.L., Volicer, L., Langlais, P.J., Marquis, J., Kaplan, E. Arch. Neurol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of transient forebrain ischemia and pargyline on extracellular concentrations of dopamine, serotonin, and their metabolites in the rat striatum as determined by in vivo microdialysis. Damsma, G., Boisvert, D.P., Mudrick, L.A., Wenkstern, D., Fibiger, H.C. J. Neurochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Hydrogen peroxide as a mediator of dopac-induced effects on melanoma cells. Karg, E., Rosengren, E., Rorsman, H. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Dopamine content and metabolism in mesencephalic and diencephalic cell cultures: sex differences and effects of sex steroids. Beyer, C., Pilgrim, C., Reisert, I. J. Neurosci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Basic FGF reverses chemical and morphological deficits in the nigrostriatal system of MPTP-treated mice. Otto, D., Unsicker, K. J. Neurosci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Differential regulation of sympathetic neuron neuropeptide Y and catecholamine content and secretion. May, V., Brandenburg, C.A., Braas, K.M. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Circadian rhythm in circulating concentration of dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in normal women. Wilkes, M.M., Babaknia, A., Hoff, J.D., Quigley, M.E., Kraus, P.F., Yen, S.S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1981) [Pubmed]
  24. Bilateral augmentation of dopaminergic and serotonergic activity in the striatum and nucleus accumbens induced by conditioned circling. Szostak, C., Jakubovic, A., Phillips, A.G., Fibiger, H.C. J. Neurosci. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Prior exposure to chronic stress results in enhanced synthesis and release of hippocampal norepinephrine in response to a novel stressor. Nisenbaum, L.K., Zigmond, M.J., Sved, A.F., Abercrombie, E.D. J. Neurosci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Prefrontal cortex dysfunction in Borna disease virus (BDV)--infected rats. Solbrig, M.V., Koob, G.F., Fallon, J.H., Reid, S., Lipkin, W.I. Biol. Psychiatry (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Progesterone advances the diurnal rhythm of tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neuronal activity and the prolactin surge in ovariectomized, estrogen-primed rats and in intact proestrous rats. Yen, S.H., Pan, J.T. Endocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Opposite change of in vivo dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens and striatum that follows electrical stimulation of dorsal raphe nucleus: role of 5-HT3 receptors. De Deurwaerdère, P., Stinus, L., Spampinato, U. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
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  32. Covalent crosslinking of neurofilament proteins by oxidized catechols as a potential mechanism of Lewy body formation. Montine, T.J., Farris, D.B., Graham, D.G. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. Inhibition of monoamine oxidase by moclobemide: effects on monoamine metabolism and secretion of anterior pituitary hormones and cortisol in healthy volunteers. Koulu, M., Scheinin, M., Kaarttinen, A., Kallio, J., Pyykkö, K., Vuorinen, J., Zimmer, R.H. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1989) [Pubmed]
  34. Parathyroid hormone-induced dopamine turnover in the rat medial basal hypothalamus. Harvey, S., Hayer, S., Sloley, B.D. Peptides (1993) [Pubmed]
  35. Adenoviral vector-mediated GDNF gene therapy in a rodent lesion model of late stage Parkinson's disease. Lapchak, P.A., Araujo, D.M., Hilt, D.C., Sheng, J., Jiao, S. Brain Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Cyclooxygenase-2-deficient mice are resistant to 1-methyl-4-phenyl1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine-induced damage of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Feng, Z.H., Wang, T.G., Li, D.D., Fung, P., Wilson, B.C., Liu, B., Ali, S.F., Langenbach, R., Hong, J.S. Neurosci. Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. COMT-inhibition increases serum levels of dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. Oechsner, M., Buhmann, C., Strauss, J., Stuerenburg, H.J. Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) (2002) [Pubmed]
  38. Characterization of dopamine release in the substantia nigra by in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats. Robertson, G.S., Damsma, G., Fibiger, H.C. J. Neurosci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  39. Effects of an anxiogenic benzodiazepine receptor ligand on motor activity and dopamine release in nucleus accumbens and striatum in the rat. Brose, N., O'Neill, R.D., Boutelle, M.G., Anderson, S.M., Fillenz, M. J. Neurosci. (1987) [Pubmed]
  40. Altered balance between thyrotropin-releasing hormone and dopamine in prolactinomas and other pituitary tumors compared to normal pituitaries. Le Dafniet, M., Blumberg-Tick, J., Gozlan, H., Barret, A., Joubert Bression, D., Peillon, F. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1989) [Pubmed]
  41. Effects of handling or immobilization on plasma levels of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, catecholamines, and metabolites in rats. Kvetnanský, R., Goldstein, D.S., Weise, V.K., Holmes, C., Szemeredi, K., Bagdy, G., Kopin, I.J. J. Neurochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
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