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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli K12 with fumarate as terminal electron acceptor. Genetic studies with menaquinone and fluoroacetate-resistant mutants.

Fifteen independent menaquinone biosynthesis mutants (men) of Escherichia coli K12, selected for their inability to use fumarate as terminal electron acceptor, were investigated. Two nutritionally distinct groups were detected. The major group (13 mutants) responded to 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate (DHN), 2-succinylbenzoate (SB) and its dilactone, whereas the minor group (2 mutants) only responded to DHN. DHN was at least five times more effective than SB but it inhibited growth at concentrations greater than 10 microM. For anaerobic growth on glucose minimal medium the auxotrophs responded to much lower concentrations of DHN and SB and these intermediates could be replaced by uracil. Anaerobic growth tests showed that glycerol, formate and H2 are good substrates for E. coli when fumarate is the ultimate electron acceptor but growth with lactate or with fumarate alone is poor. All 15 men mutations were located between glpT and purF at approximately 49 min in the E. coli linkage map. Cotransduction frequencies with relevant markers were: nalA (21%), glpT (35%) and purF (15%). The presence of at least three genetically distinct classes (menC and menD, SB-requirers; menB, DHN-requirers) was indicated using abortive transduction as a complementation test and three-factor genetic analysis. The relative orientation nalA...menC-(D,B)...purF was indicated. Fluoroacetate-resistant mutants were isolated and four different classes were identified: ack, lacking acetate kinase; pta, lacking phosphotransacetylase; facA, lacking both of these activities; and facB, which retained both of these enzyme activities. Some of the pta mutants and all of the facA mutants failed to grow on media containing fumarate as terminal electron acceptor or anaerobically on glucose minimal medium. All four types had genetic lesions clustered between the men and purF sites. Average cotransduction frequencies with relevant markers were: nalA (4%), men (27 to 35%) and purF (71 to 80%).[1]


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