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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Uptake and excretion of [14C]methyl bromide as influenced by exposure concentration.

Methyl bromide is a widely used soil fumigant and poses potential inhalation hazard to workers. Uptake of methyl bromide and pathways for excretion of 14C were investigated in male Fischer-344 rats after nose-only inhalation of 50, 300, 5700, or 10,400 nmol (1.6 to 310 ppm) of [14C]methyl bromide/liter of air for 6 hr. Fractional uptake of methyl bromide decreased at the highest concentrations, 5700 and 10400 nmol/liter, with 37 and 27% of the inhaled methyl bromide absorbed, respectively, compared to 48% at the lower levels. This resulted in the same total amount of methyl bromide being absorbed at the two higher exposure concentrations (650 mumol/kg body wt). Total methyl bromide adsorbed was 9 or 40 mumol/kg body wt after exposure to 50 or 300 nmol/liter, respectively. Elimination of 14C was linearly related to the amount of methyl bromide absorbed as determined from urine, feces, expired CO2, and parent compound collected for 66 hr after the end of exposure. Exhaled 14CO2 was the dominant route of excretion, with from 1.2 to 110 mumol (50% of amount absorbed) exhaled, and was described by a two-component negative exponential function; 85% was exhaled with a t 1/2 of 4 hr, and the remaining 15% was exhaled with a t 1/2 of 17 hr. The rate of exhalation of 14CO2 was not affected by the amount of [14C]methyl bromide absorbed. From 0.4 to 54 mumol was excreted in urine (20% of amount absorbed). The half-time for excretion of 14C in urine was approximately 10 hr, and the rate of excretion was not dependent on the amount of [14C]methyl bromide absorbed. Little 14C was exhaled as methyl bromide (less than 4% of the dose) or excreted in feces (less than 2%). At the end of 66 hr, 25% of the 14C absorbed remained in the rats. Liver, kidneys, adrenals, lungs, thymus, and turbinates (maxilloturbinates, ethmoturbinates, and nasal epithelial membrane) contained the highest concentrations of 14C. Results indicated that uptake of inhaled methyl bromide could be saturated. Any [14C]methyl bromide equivalents absorbed, however, would be excreted by concentration-independent mechanisms.[1]


  1. Uptake and excretion of [14C]methyl bromide as influenced by exposure concentration. Medinsky, M.A., Dutcher, J.S., Bond, J.A., Henderson, R.F., Mauderly, J.L., Snipes, M.B., Mewhinney, J.A., Cheng, Y.S., Birnbaum, L.S. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1985) [Pubmed]
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