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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Exhalation

  • At severe liver siderosis, breath ethane exhalation reached a maximum of approximately 8 nmol/kg/hr independent of VitE supplementation [1].
  • KICA breath tests revealed no differences in either peak exhalation or the area under the curve from 0 to 60 minutes between healthy controls (3.0% and 19.3%), untreated patients with chronic hepatitis B (3.4% and 19.3%), and patients treated with lamivudine (3.1% and 20.6%) [2].
  • The fractional exhalation of (13)CO(2) increased with increasing L-leucine dose, but showed an inflexion point at approximately 8.9 g/kg body weight, after which it reached a plateau [3].
  • In rats FeNTA also increased ethane exhalation and MDA, but the rat was less susceptible than the mouse to FeNTA toxicity [4].
  • METHODS: Triglyceride oxidation in patients with cystic fibrosis was investigated after administration of different 13C-labeled triglycerides by comparing 13CO2 breath exhalation [5].

Psychiatry related information on Exhalation


High impact information on Exhalation

  • Inspired submicrometric sulfuric acid aerosol at a mass concentration of 600 +/- 100 micrograms per cubic meter was found to be an ammonium salt with an average ammonium to sulfate molar ratio of greater than or equal to 1, when sampled within 0.5 second after exhalation [7].
  • Cytochrome P450 2E1, mitochondrial generation of peroxides, thiobarbituric acid reactants, and ethane exhalation were increased [8].
  • The protective effect does not appear to be mediated through changes in excretion or distribution because exhalation of CCl4 was not increased, and hepatic CCl4 concentration was not decreased by hyperbaric O2 [9].
  • MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Wheezing was present on maximal forced exhalation in 8 of 14 patients with a positive methacholine challenge test (sensitivity = 57%) and absent in 11 of 30 patients with a negative test (specificity = 37%) [10].
  • Although exhalation of mercury vapor was a major route of excretion and urinary mercury rose fivefold with administration of penicillamine, excretion by all routes, estimated for the year after injection, represented only 1% of the dose [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Exhalation


Biological context of Exhalation

  • Increased ethane exhalation, an in vivo index of lipid peroxidation, in alcohol-abusers [17].
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-one adults presenting with severe asthma exacerbations (forced expiratory volumes in the first second of exhalation [FEV1] <40% of predicted) to the emergency department were randomized (double-blind) to receive hourly inhaled nebulization treatment with either isoetharine (5 mg) or albuterol (2.5 mg) [18].
  • The cumulative exhalation of 14CO2 increased with decreasing rate of acetylation of isoniazid, such that slow acetylators generated more 14CO2 than rapid acetylators [19].
  • The largest increases in exhalation rate of 13CO2 were observed in the poor metabolizers and the intermediate metabolizers (range, 12.8% to 62.9%; median, 38.9%); median area under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUC) of omeprazole was four times higher than in the extensive metabolizers [20].
  • Residual whole-body L-leucine oxidation was estimated on the basis of the 3-h kinetics of (13)CO(2) exhalation and (13)C-isotopic enrichment in plasma 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate using a noncompartmental mathematical approach [21].

Anatomical context of Exhalation


Associations of Exhalation with chemical compounds

  • Parameters of 14CO2 exhalation including peak exhalation rate, cumulative exhalation from 0 to 120 min and the elimination rate constant were all impaired in glutathione-depleted rats [26].
  • The exhalation of 14CO2 after the administration of [dimethylamino-14C]aminopyrine to an organism is assumed to reflect the demethylation of aminopyrine by hepatic mixed-function oxidase activity [27].
  • Reduction of hepatic tetrahydrofolate and inhibition of exhalation of 14CO2 formed from [dimethylamino-14C]aminopyrine in nitrous oxide-treated rats [27].
  • In vivo, administration of tetracycline, 0.25 or 1 mmole per kg, inhibited by 53 and 84%, respectively, the exhalation of [14C]CO2 during the first 3 hours following the administration of a tracer dose of [U-14C]palmitic acid [28].
  • Even at threshold doses of glutamate, exhalation was incomplete, resulting in a breathing pattern that resembled apneusis (an inspiratory cramp) [29].

Gene context of Exhalation

  • Pharmacokinetic modeling of (14)CO(2) exhalation data revealed that CYP2E1 is responsible for approximately 96% of urethane metabolism to CO(2) in wild-type mice [30].
  • With acarbose, sucrose reached the colon approximately 120 min after ingestion, as indicated by an increment in breath hydrogen exhalation (p < 0.0001), and GLP-1 release was prolonged (p < 0.0001) [31].
  • In conclusion, strategies to reduce TI,vent in patients with COPD caused tachypnea, yet prolonged the time for exhalation with consequent decrease in PEEP(i) [32].
  • In contrast, C(NO,plat) for healthy control subjects and patients with CF are not statistically different at both exhalation flow rates of 50 ml/s (17.5 +/- 11.5 and 11.5 +/- 8.97) and at 250 ml/s (7.11 +/- 5.36 and 4.28 +/- 3.43) [33].
  • In contrast to this result the exhalation of 14CO2 does not seem to be influenced by the esterase inhibiting effect of DSF [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Exhalation


  1. Ethane exhalation and vitamin E/ubiquinol status as markers of lipid peroxidation in ferrocene iron-loaded rats. Dresow, B., Albert, C., Zimmermann, I., Nielsen, P. Hepatology (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Effect of lamivudine on morphology and function of mitochondria in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Honkoop, P., de Man, R.A., Scholte, H.R., Zondervan, P.E., Van Den Berg, J.W., Rademakers, L.H., Schalm, S.W. Hepatology (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Potential approaches to the assessment of amino acid adequacy in rats: a progress report. Sakai, R., Miura, M., Amao, M., Kodama, R., Toue, S., Noguchi, Y., Kimura, T. J. Nutr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. The induction of autoxidative tissue damage by iron nitrilotriacetate in rats and mice. Preece, N.E., Evans, P.F., Howarth, J.A., King, L.J., Parke, D.V. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Triglyceride oxidation in cystic fibrosis: a comparison between different 13C-labeled tracer substances. Wutzke, K.D., Radke, M., Breuel, K., Gurk, S., Lafrenz, J.D., Heine, W.E. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Carbon dioxide exhalation temporarily increases during electroconvulsive therapy. Sakurazawa, S., Saito, S., Yamada, M., Nishihara, F., Goto, F. Journal of anesthesia. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Ammonia in the human airways: neutralization of inspired acid sulfate aerosols. Larson, T.V., Covert, D.S., Frank, R., Charlson, R.J. Science (1977) [Pubmed]
  8. Impaired adaptive resynthesis and prolonged depletion of hepatic mitochondrial DNA after repeated alcohol binges in mice. Demeilliers, C., Maisonneuve, C., Grodet, A., Mansouri, A., Nguyen, R., Tinel, M., Lettéron, P., Degott, C., Feldmann, G., Pessayre, D., Fromenty, B. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Hyperbaric oxygen protection against carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity in the rat. Association with altered metabolism. Burk, R.F., Reiter, R., Lane, J.M. Gastroenterology (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Wheezing on maximal forced exhalation in the diagnosis of atypical asthma. Lack of sensitivity and specificity. King, D.K., Thompson, B.T., Johnson, D.C. Ann. Intern. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Intravenous elemental mercury injection: blood levels and excretion of mercury. Ambre, J.J., Welsh, M.J., Svare, C.W. Ann. Intern. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  12. Reduction of the single breath CO diffusing capacity in cystic fibrosis. Cotton, D.J., Graham, B.L., Mink, J.T., Habbick, B.F. Chest (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Methylmercury stimulates the exhalation of volatile selenium and potentiates the toxicity of selenite. Yonemoto, J., Webb, M., Magos, L. Toxicol. Lett. (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Long-term administration of N-acetylcysteine decreases hydrogen peroxide exhalation in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Kasielski, M., Nowak, D. Respiratory medicine. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Tetrachloromethane metabolism in vivo under normoxia and hypoxia. Biochemical and histopathological effects relative to alkane exhalation. Dürk, H., Klessen, C., Frank, H. Arch. Toxicol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. In vivo assessment of lipid peroxidation in experimental edematous and necrotizing rat pancreatitis. Lévy, P., Lettéron, P., Paye, F., Molas, G., Guimont, M.C., Pessayre, D., Bernades, P., Rozé, C. Pancreas (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Increased ethane exhalation, an in vivo index of lipid peroxidation, in alcohol-abusers. Lettéron, P., Duchatelle, V., Berson, A., Fromenty, B., Fisch, C., Degott, C., Benhamou, J.P., Pessayre, D. Gut (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Isoetharine versus albuterol for acute asthma: greater immediate effect, but more side effects. Shrestha, M., Gourlay, S., Robertson, S., Bidadi, K., Wainscott, M., Hayes, J. Am. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Oxidation of hydrazine metabolites formed from isoniazid. Lauterburg, B.H., Smith, C.V., Todd, E.L., Mitchell, J.R. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Increase of cytochrome P450IA2 activity by omeprazole: evidence by the 13C-[N-3-methyl]-caffeine breath test in poor and extensive metabolizers of S-mephenytoin. Rost, K.L., Brösicke, H., Brockmöller, J., Scheffler, M., Helge, H., Roots, I. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Whole-body L-leucine oxidation in patients with variant form of maple syrup urine disease. Schadewaldt, P., Bodner-Leidecker, A., Hammen, H.W., Wendel, U. Pediatr. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Relationship between hepatic mitochondrial functions in vivo and in vitro in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver cirrhosis. Krähenbühl, L., Ledermann, M., Lang, C., Krähenbühl, S. J. Hepatol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Lipid peroxidation: a possible mechanism of trichloroethylene-induced nephrotoxicity. Cojocel, C., Beuter, W., Müller, W., Mayer, D. Toxicology (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Dose dependence of breath hydrogen and methane in healthy volunteers after ingestion of a commercial disaccharide mixture, Palatinit. Fritz, M., Siebert, G., Kasper, H. Br. J. Nutr. (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. Effects of NADPH oxidase inhibitors on hypoxic vasoconstriction in buffer-perfused rabbit lungs. Grimminger, F., Weissmann, N., Spriestersbach, R., Becker, E., Rosseau, S., Seeger, W. Am. J. Physiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. The effect of glutathione depletion on 14CO2 evolution from [14C]methyl-labeled aminopyrine in intact rats. Bhatt, H.S., Combes, B. Hepatology (1985) [Pubmed]
  27. Reduction of hepatic tetrahydrofolate and inhibition of exhalation of 14CO2 formed from [dimethylamino-14C]aminopyrine in nitrous oxide-treated rats. Black, K.A., Virayotha, V., Tephly, T.R. Hepatology (1984) [Pubmed]
  28. Inhibition of the mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids by tetracycline in mice and in man: possible role in microvesicular steatosis induced by this antibiotic. Fréneaux, E., Labbe, G., Letteron, P., The Le Dinh, n.u.l.l., Degott, C., Genève, J., Larrey, D., Pessayre, D. Hepatology (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. Topographic organization of respiratory responses to glutamate microstimulation of the parabrachial nucleus in the rat. Chamberlin, N.L., Saper, C.B. J. Neurosci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  30. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is the principal enzyme responsible for urethane metabolism: comparative studies using CYP2E1-null and wild-type mice. Hoffler, U., El-Masri, H.A., Ghanayem, B.I. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (7-36 amide) secretion in response to luminal sucrose from the upper and lower gut. A study using alpha-glucosidase inhibition (acarbose). Qualmann, C., Nauck, M.A., Holst, J.J., Orskov, C., Creutzfeldt, W. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Effect of imposed inflation time on respiratory frequency and hyperinflation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Laghi, F., Segal, J., Choe, W.K., Tobin, M.J. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Flow-independent nitric oxide exchange parameters in cystic fibrosis. Shin, H.W., Rose-Gottron, C.M., Sufi, R.S., Perez, F., Cooper, D.M., Wilson, A.F., George, S.C. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Inhibition of the metabolism of N-nitrosoacetoxymethylmethylamine in the rat by disulfiram. Frank, N., Wiessler, M. Carcinogenesis (1986) [Pubmed]
  35. Deuterium isotope effect on metabolism of N-nitrosodimethylamine in vivo in rat. Swann, P.F., Mace, R., Angeles, R.M., Keefer, L.K. Carcinogenesis (1983) [Pubmed]
  36. 13C-methionine breath test detects distinct hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction in HIV-infected patients with normal serum lactate. Banasch, M., Goetze, O., Hollborn, I., Hochdorfer, B., Bulut, K., Schlottmann, R., Hagemann, D., Brockmeyer, N.H., Schmidt, W.E., Schmitz, F. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. The stimulation and inhibition of the exhalation of volatile selenium. Tandon, S.K., Magos, L., Webb, M. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  38. Rest and exercise cardiac output and diffusing capacity assessed by a single slow exhalation of methane, acetylene, and carbon monoxide. Ramage, J.E., Coleman, R.E., MacIntyre, N.R. Chest (1987) [Pubmed]
  39. Conservation of oxygen supply using a reservoir nasal cannula in hypoxemic patients at rest and during exercise. Soffer, M., Tashkin, D.P., Shapiro, B.J., Littner, M., Harvey, E., Farr, S. Chest (1985) [Pubmed]
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