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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

n-Butyrate effects thyroid hormone stimulation of prolactin production and mRNA levels in GH1 cells.

Using cultured GH1 cells, a growth hormone and prolactin-producing rat pituitary cell line, we have shown that n-butyrate and other short chain carboxylic acids stimulate histone acetylation and elicit a reduction of thyroid hormone nuclear receptor which is inversely related to the extent of acetylation (Samuels, H. H., Stanley, F., Casanova, J., and Shao, T. C. (1980) J. Biol. Chem. 255, 2499-2508). In this study, we compared the n-butyrate and propionate modulation of receptor levels to regulation of the growth hormone and prolactin response by 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (L-T3). n-Butyrate (0.1-10 mM) did not stimulate growth hormone production. L-T3 stimulated the growth hormone response 4- to 5-fold and n-butyrate (0.5-1 mM) increased L-T3 stimulation of growth hormone production 1.5- to 2-fold compared to L-T3 alone. L-T3 stimulation of growth hormone production at higher n-butyrate concentrations decreased in parallel with the n-butyrate-mediated reduction of receptor levels. In contrast with the growth hormone response, n-butyrate (0.5 mM) increased basal prolactin production about 5-fold. Prolactin production, which is inhibited 25 to 50% by L-T3, was stimulated between 20- and 70-fold by L-T3 + n-butyrate (0.5-1 mM) and this decreased at higher n-butyrate levels. Prolactin mRNA and growth hormone mRNA levels paralleled the changes in prolactin and growth hormone production rates. These effects of L-T3, n-butyrate, or L-T3 + n-butyrate appeared unrelated to changes in cAMP levels or global changes in DNA methylation of the growth hormone or prolactin genes. Propionate elicited the same effects as n-butyrate but at a 5- to 10-fold higher concentration consistent with their relative effect on stimulating acetylation of chromatin proteins. These results suggest that prolactin gene expression is under partial regulatory repression which is reversed by a carboxylic acid-mediated postsynthetic modification event which allows for stimulation of the prolactin gene by thyroid hormone.[1]


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