The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Identification of volatile metabolites of inhaled n-heptane in rat urine.

Alkanes, alcohols, and ketones which are metabolized to a gamma-diketone can produce peripheral neuropathy in experimental animals and in man. A study was conducted to obtain information about the metabolic pathway of n-heptane and its potential neurotoxicity. Female Wistar rats were exposed to 2000 ppm n-heptane inhalation for 12 weeks. Metabolites in urine were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Urinary metabolites were quantified following 6-hr n-heptane exposures. n-Heptane metabolites were 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-heptanols, 2- and 3-heptanones, 2,5- and 2,6-heptanediols, 5-hydroxy-2-heptanone, 6-hydroxy-2-heptanone, 6-hydroxy-3-heptanone, 2,5- and 2,6-heptanediones, and gamma-valerolactone. The amount of urinary metabolites increased greatly after the second exposure day, achieving a steady-state concentration on subsequent exposure days over the 12 weeks of the exposure regimen. These results showed that n-heptane was metabolized mainly by hydroxylation at omega- 1 carbon atom and to a lesser extent at the omega- 2 carbon atom. 2-Heptanol, 6-hydroxy-2-heptanone, and 3-heptanol were the major metabolites and were excreted as sulfates and glucuronides. 2,5-Heptanedione, which is a neurotoxic agent, was the metabolite found in least amounts (2.4 +/- 2 micrograms/rat) in the urine. No clinical evidence of neurotoxicity was observed after n-heptane exposure. Apparently, the lack of neurotoxicity was due to a low production of 2,5-heptanedione, the toxic metabolite.[1]


  1. Identification of volatile metabolites of inhaled n-heptane in rat urine. Bahima, J., Cert, A., Menéndez-Gallego, M. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1984) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities