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Chemical Compound Review

Heptanes     heptane

Synonyms: Heptanen, HEPTANE, Eptani, Heptan, n-Heptan, ...
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Disease relevance of heptane


High impact information on heptane

  • The isolated-site low-temperature crystal matrix (dilute solutions in heptane and in octane) ( Shpol ' skii matrix) is shown to be operative for the spectroscopic study of 3- hydroxyflavone luminescence [6].
  • When partially purified tissue retinol-binding protein is extracted with heptane, the heptane extract has a fluorescence excitation spectrum similar to that of all-trans-retinol [7].
  • The photochemistry of Fe(CO)5 (5) has been studied in heptane, supercritical (sc) Ar, scXe, and scCH4 using time-resolved infrared spectroscopy (TRIR) [8].
  • Typically, stable and optically clear oil-in-water microemulsions containing a surfactant (SDS), oil (octane or heptane), and cosurfactant (1-butanol) in phosphate buffer are employed as separation media in conventional MEEKC [9].
  • Good results were obtained with all microemulsions tested considering as responses analysis time and resolution, and according to the desirability function the best microemulsion system was constituted by 90.0% 10 mM borate buffer, 2.0% n-heptane, 8.0% of SDS/n-butanol in 1:2 ratio [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of heptane


Biological context of heptane


Anatomical context of heptane

  • The activation of docosahexaenoic acid by rat brain microsomes was studied using an assay method based on the extraction of unreacted [1-14C]docosahexaenoic acid and the insolubility of [1-14C]docosahexaenoyl-CoA in heptane [18].
  • Electrophysiological examination of the peroneal nerve was performed in a group of individuals exposed for professional reasons to vapours of n-heptane [19].
  • Absorption of four amide local anaesthetics, including a new experimental agent, ropivacaine, in n-heptane, rat sciatic nerve and human extradural and subcutaneous fat was studied in vitro [20].
  • Chemical analysis of the heptane extract revealed the presence of a high concentration of alkylphenols (approx. 30%) and further subfractionation indicated that the enlargement of the popliteal lymph node was mainly due to the content of ginkgolic acids [21].
  • There is no evidence that the preparation disturbs the distribution of soluble elements in the specimen, since X-ray spectra of muscle cells exposed to heptane do not differ from those of samples not exposed [22].

Associations of heptane with other chemical compounds

  • Extracting 1 or 0.1 mL of plasma with Dole's mixture (J Biol Chem 1960;235:2595) and washing the "heptane" layer with two volumes of isopropanol/water/dilute (0.5 mol/L) H2SO4 (25/25/1, by vol) removes about 90% of the lipid phosphorus from the "heptane" layer without removing any FFA and is more convenient than treatment with silicic acid [23].
  • Thermal conductively detection (TCD) in conjunction with gas-liquid chromatography was employed for the analysis of enflurane in n-heptane extracts of whole blood [24].
  • As with the previous work on conventional (non-metalized) glass-ionomer cements, the specimens were preconditioned at 37 degrees C in air, water, 0.02 mol/L lactic acid (pH 2.67), and heptane [25].
  • We report here, for the first time, its fluorescence emission behavior in a membrane mimetic model system, namely reverse micelles of aerosol-OT in n-heptane, containing varying amounts of added H2O or D2O [26].
  • The p-methylbenzyl radical was identified in n-heptane and acetonitrile by its fluorescence, which was induced by excitation at 308 nm [27].

Gene context of heptane

  • The major steps of this procedure involve the preparation of a microemulsion containing the drug and the complexing of this emulsion with apolipoprotein B (apo B) that has been delipidated by heptane extraction [28].
  • RESULTS: Earlier AHF lots subjected to non-virus-inactivated treatment (36 lots), dry heat (11 lots), or heating in n-heptane (4 lots) had relatively high levels of HCV RNA [29].
  • A three-step solvent extraction procedure was performed using n-heptane containing 1% isoamyl alcohol and n-hexane and compared with a plasma clean-up procedure using C18 Sep-Pak cartridges [30].
  • A purification procedure for guanylate kinase from pig brain has been developed consisting of ammonium sulfate precipitation and heptane extraction of the crude extract, hydrophobic-interaction chromatography, affinity chromatography and chromatofocussing [31].
  • The rats treated with the three iNOS inhibitors (N-(3-(aminomethyl)benzyl)acetamidine (1400W), (1 S, 5 S, 6 R, 7 R )-2-aza-7-chloro-3-imino-5-methylbicyclo [4.1.0] heptane hydrochloride (ONO-1714), and aminoguanidine) administered 1 hr after LPS injection, showed dose-dependent decreases in plasma NOx levels and NOS activity in the lungs [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of heptane

  • For both studies, brain concentrations of the anesthetics were determined by heptane extraction and gas chromatography [33].
  • The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is determined from a single peak obtained using normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography (NP-HPLC), a column of the NH2 type, n-heptane as the eluent, refractive index detector (RID) and backflushing of the eluent [34].
  • The refractive index detector (RID) and n-heptane as the mobile phase are still used, but backflushing of the eluent is applied after the elution of all polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [34].
  • Crystallization of 3 from a mixture of benzene and heptane afforded the bis(benzene) solvate [(C(6)H(6))(2)K][CH(2)Si(Me)(2)N(SiMe(3))Y{N(SiMe(3))(2)}(2)] (3a) [35].
  • Multiple fronts were formed when pure liquids such as methanol or heptane and multi-component liquids such as ethanol-toluene mixtures were flowed through initially dry thin-layer chromatography plates, whether the stationary phase was naked silica or octadecyl-silica [36].


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  2. Toxicity of n-hexane and n-heptane: some biochemical changes in liver and serum. Goel, S.K., Rao, G.S., Pandya, K.P. Toxicol. Lett. (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. Ubiquinone in hydrogen metabolism by Azotobacter vinelandii. Kow, Y.W. Can. J. Microbiol. (1984) [Pubmed]
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  5. Measurement of conjugated diene lipids by derivative spectroscopy in heptane extracts of plasma. Situnayake, R.D., Crump, B.J., Zezulka, A.V., Davis, M., McConkey, B., Thurnham, D.I. Ann. Clin. Biochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Proton-transfer spectroscopy of 3-hydroxyflavone in an isolated-site crystal matrix. McMorrow, D., Kasha, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Retinoic acid-binding protein in rat tissue. Partial purification and comparison to rat tissue retinol-binding protein. Ong, D.E., Chytil, F. J. Biol. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  8. Unraveling the photochemistry of Fe(CO)5 in solution: observation of Fe(CO)3 and the conversion between 3Fe(CO)4 and 1Fe(CO)4(Solvent). Portius, P., Yang, J., Sun, X.Z., Grills, D.C., Matousek, P., Parker, A.W., Towrie, M., George, M.W. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Recent applications of microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography. Huie, C.W. Electrophoresis (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Mixture design in the optimization of a microemulsion system for the electrokinetic chromatographic determination of ketorolac and its impurities: method development and validation. Furlanetto, S., Orlandini, S., Marras, A.M., Mura, P., Pinzauti, S. Electrophoresis (2006) [Pubmed]
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  12. Volatile biomarkers of pulmonary tuberculosis in the breath. Phillips, M., Cataneo, R.N., Condos, R., Ring Erickson, G.A., Greenberg, J., La Bombardi, V., Munawar, M.I., Tietje, O. Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland) (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. Nerve impulse blockage in squid axons by n-alkanes: the effect of axon diameter. Haydon, D.A., Hendry, B.M. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Investigation of the interaction of a putative allosteric modulator, N-(2,3-diphenyl-1,2,4-thiadiazole-5-(2H)-ylidene) methanamine hydrobromide (SCH-202676), with M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Lanzafame, A., Christopoulos, A. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. DNA damage and sequence specificity of DNA binding of the new anti-cancer agent 1,4-bis(2'-chloroethyl)-1,4-diazabicyclo-[2.2.1] heptane dimaleate (Dabis maleate). Broggini, M., Hartley, J.A., Mattes, W.B., Ponti, M., Kohn, K.W., D'Incalci, M. Br. J. Cancer (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Regulation of alkane oxidation in Pseudomonas putida. Grund, A., Shapiro, J., Fennewald, M., Bacha, P., Leahy, J., Markbreiter, K., Nieder, M., Toepfer, M. J. Bacteriol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  17. Identification of volatile metabolites of inhaled n-heptane in rat urine. Bahima, J., Cert, A., Menéndez-Gallego, M. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetase from rat brain microsomes. Kinetic studies using [1-14C]docosahexaenoic acid substrate. Reddy, T.S., Sprecher, H., Bazan, N.G. Eur. J. Biochem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. Electrophysiological findings in workers exposed to N-heptane fumes. Crespi, V., Di Costanzo, M., Ferrario, F., Tredici, G. J. Neurol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  20. Absorption of bupivacaine, etidocaine, lignocaine and ropivacaine into n-heptane, rat sciatic nerve, and human extradural and subcutaneous fat. Rosenberg, P.H., Kyttä, J., Alila, A. British journal of anaesthesia. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Evidence for immunotoxic effects of crude Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extracts using the popliteal lymph node assay in the mouse. Koch, E., Jaggy, H., Chatterjee, S.S. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. A cryoembedding method for cutting ultrathin cryosections from small frozen specimens. Steinbrecht, R.A., Zierold, K. Journal of microscopy. (1984) [Pubmed]
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  27. Photodissociation of p-xylene in polar and nonpolar solutions. Fujiwara, M., Mouri, Y., Ariki, K., Tanimoto, Y. The journal of physical chemistry. A, Molecules, spectroscopy, kinetics, environment & general theory. (2005) [Pubmed]
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  29. Hepatitis C virus RNA in factor VIII concentrates. Guo, Z.P., Yu, M.W. Transfusion (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Isothermal gas chromatographic determination of nanogram amounts of chlorimipramine, chlorpromazine and their N-desmethyl metabolites in plasma using nitrogen-selective detection. Ninci, R., Giovannini, M.G., Della Corte, L., Sgaragli, G. J. Chromatogr. (1986) [Pubmed]
  31. Purification and sequence determination of guanylate kinase from pig brain. Zschocke, P.D., Schiltz, E., Schulz, G.E. Eur. J. Biochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Comparison of effects of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors on plasma nitrite/nitrate levels and tissue NOS activity in septic organs. Hayashi, Y., Abe, M., Murai, A., Shimizu, N., Okamoto, I., Katsuragi, T., Tanaka, K. Microbiol. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Clinical concentrations of volatile anesthetics reduce depolarization-evoked release of [3H]norepinephrine, but not [3H]acetylcholine, from rat cerebral cortex. Bazil, C.W., Minneman, K.P. J. Neurochem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  34. Procedure for and results of simultaneous determination of aromatic hydrocarbons and fatty acid methyl esters in diesel fuels by high performance liquid chromatography. Kamiński, M., Gilgenast, E., Przyjazny, A., Romanik, G. Journal of chromatography. A. (2006) [Pubmed]
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