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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Nuclear stains with soluble metachrome metal mordant dye lakes. The effect of chemical endgroup blocking reactions and the artificial introduction of acid groups into tissues.

Following our study on the effect of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction on nuclear staining with soluble metal mordant dye lakes covering 29 dye lakes we chose a series of lakes representing the three groups: (1) readily prevented by DNA removal, (2) weakened by DNA extraction but not prevented, (3) unaffected by DNA removal, for application of other endgroup blockade reactions. The lakes selected were alum and iron hematoxylins, iron alum and ferrous sulfate galleins, Fe2+ gallo blue E, iron alum celestin blue B, iron alum fluorone black and the phenocyanin TC-FeSO4 sequence. Azure A with and without an eosin B neutral stain, was used as a simple cationic (and anionic) dye control. Methylation was less effective than with simple cationic dyes, but did weaken celestin blue, gallo blue E and phenocyanin Fe2+ nuclear stains. These dyes also demonstrate other acid groups: acid mucins, cartilage matrix, mast cells, central nervous corpora amylacea and artificially introduced carboxyl, sulfuric and sulfonic acid groups. Alum hematoxylin stained cartilage weakly and demonstrated sulfation and sulfonation sites. The iron galleins, iron fluorone black and acid iron hematoxylin do not. A pH 4 iron alum hematoxylin gave no staining of these sites; an alum hematoxylin acidified with 1% 12 N HCl gave weaker results. Deamination prevented eosin and orange G counterstains but did not impair nuclear stains with any of the mordant dye lakes. The simple acetylations likewise did not alter mordant dye nuclear staining, the Skraup reagent gave its usual sulfation effect on other tissue elements, but did not alter nuclear stains by mordant dyes. The mordant dyes do not bind to periodic acid engendered aldehyde sites and p-toluidine/acetic acid and borohydride aldehyde blockades did not alter mordant dye lake nuclear staining. Nitration by tetranitromethane, which blocks azo coupling of tyrosine residues, did not alter nuclear staining by the mordant dye lakes. Benzil at pH 13, which prevents the beta-naphthoquinone-4-Na sulfonate (NQS) arginine reaction and the Fullmer reaction of basic nucleoprotein, did not affect iron gallein, iron or alum hematoxylin stains of nuclei or lingual keratohyalin.[1]


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