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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Butanediol induced ketosis increases tolerance to hypoxia in the mouse.

In previous studies from our laboratory a positive correlation between elevated blood ketone levels and the survival time (ST) during hypoxia (4-5% oxygen) was observed in fasted and alloxan diabetic mice. To test the hypothesis that ketosis was somehow increasing the tolerance of mice to hypoxia, we induced ketosis by either oral (PO), intraperitoneal (IP), or intravenous (IV) 1,3-butanediol (BD). Blood beta-hydroxbutyrate increased from 0.33 +/- 0.06 mM to 3.32 +/- 0.08 mM for PO, 1.2 +/- 0.2 mM for IV and 0.83 +/- 0.15 mM for IP. BD was associated with an increase in ST to 458% (n = 19) when given PO, 217% (n = 12) by IP route, and 560% (n = 13) by the IV route. The effect of ambient temperature (Ta) on this phenomenon was evaluated at 12, 22, 32, and 34 degrees C. At each Ta, IV BD at 1.4 mmole/mouse was associated with an increase in ST to 525, 559, 151, and 145% of control, respectively. The absolute ST of both control and treated mice was greater at Ta of 12 and 22 degrees C. Hypoxia, however, was associated with a decrease in body temperature in each group. It is concluded that the artificial induction of ketosis by BD is associated with an increase in ST of mice exposed to hypoxia.[1]


  1. Butanediol induced ketosis increases tolerance to hypoxia in the mouse. Kirsch, J.R., D'Alecy, L.G., Mongroo, P.B. Stroke (1980) [Pubmed]
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