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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Ketosis

  • Elevated glycine levels in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid appear to differentiate these two forms of hyperglycinemia better than the presence of ketosis or leukopenia, and high glycine levels apparently occur in the same areas as the spongy change [1].
  • The early increase of ODC activity occurred in the presence of mild hyperglycemia without ketosis or hyperglucagonemia, but the levels were much higher in severely diabetic animals [2].
  • Ketone body production and disposal in diabetic ketosis. A comparison with fasting ketosis [3].
  • Mild acidosis developed during the protein diet as well as greater excretions of urinary ammonium and urea N, a greater degree of ketosis, and significantly better N balance (-42.7 vs -80.4 g, p less than 0.05) than during the glucose diet [4].
  • Butanediol induced ketosis increases tolerance to hypoxia in the mouse [5].

High impact information on Ketosis

  • Creatinine determination in ketosis [6].
  • In the diabetic subjects with ketosis in the resting state, exercise elicited a rise in arterial glucose and FFA, an augmented splanchnic uptake of FFA, and a 2-3 fold increase in splanchnic output of 3-hydroxybutyrate [7].
  • In the three of the six patients who developed significant ketosis, plasma-glucagon showed a close correlation with blood-ketones and plasma-free-fatty-acids while for the whole group the change in glucagon concentration correlated significantly with the rise in ketone-body concentration [8].
  • This study examined the hypothesis that ketosis increases the TNF-alpha secretion, both in a cell culture model using U937 monocytes and in type 1 diabetic patients in vivo [9].
  • Lethal hypoglycemic ketosis and glyceroluria in mice lacking both the mitochondrial and the cytosolic glycerol phosphate dehydrogenases [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Ketosis


Biological context of Ketosis


Anatomical context of Ketosis

  • Tissue sensitivity to insulin (euglycemic insulin clamp technique), hepatic glucose production (3-[3H]glucose infusion) and insulin binding to erythrocyte receptors were studied in 14 newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients after the disappearance of ketosis and after 3 months of insulin therapy [20].
  • The authors report the measurement of brain BHB and lactate in the occipital lobe of healthy adults using high field (4-T) magnetic resonance spectroscopy, measured in the nonfasted state and after 2- and 3-day fasting-induced ketosis [21].
  • Thus the term "energy associated disease" was created to assess the combined impact of the precalving monensin treatment on the incidence of retained placenta, displaced abomasum, and clinical ketosis [22].
  • Stimulation of ketogenesis by propionate in isolated rat hepatocytes: an explanation for ketosis associated with propionic acidaemia and methylmalonic acidaemia [23]?
  • Twelve percent of these cows had subclinical ketosis, defined as >1400 micromol of beta-hydroxybutyrate/L of blood serum [24].

Gene context of Ketosis

  • Effects of somatostatin on established induced ketosis [25].
  • There was a significant correlation between ketosis and IL-6 levels (r = 0.36, P < 0.04, n = 34) in the blood of diabetic patients [26].
  • Specifically, alpha-synuclein rescued cells from MPP+ mediated decreases in mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and loss of ATP levels by utilizing ketosis [27].
  • Patients homozygous for the T435N mutation of succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA Transferase (SCOT) do not show permanent ketosis [28].
  • High glucagon is said to be necessary for ketosis in severe forms of diabetes [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ketosis


  1. Nonketotic hyperglycinemia: report of a case and review of the clinical, chemical, and pathological changes. Slager, U.T., Berggren, R.L., Marubayashi, S. Ann. Neurol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  2. Effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on renal ornithine decarboxylase activity. Levine, J.H., Buse, M.G., Leaming, A.B., Raskin, P. Diabetes (1980) [Pubmed]
  3. Ketone body production and disposal in diabetic ketosis. A comparison with fasting ketosis. Féry, F., Balasse, E.O. Diabetes (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Comparison of daily diets containing 400 kcal (1.67 MJ) of either protein or glucose, and their effects on the response to subsequent total fasting in obese subjects. Gougeon-Reyburn, R., Leiter, L.A., Yale, J.F., Marliss, E.B. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Butanediol induced ketosis increases tolerance to hypoxia in the mouse. Kirsch, J.R., D'Alecy, L.G., Mongroo, P.B. Stroke (1980) [Pubmed]
  6. Creatinine determination in ketosis. Lebel, R.R., Gutmann, F.D., Mazumdar, D.C., Grzys, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Splanchnic and leg exchange of glucose, amino acids, and free fatty acids during exercise in diabetes mellitus. Wahren, J., Hagenfeldt, L., Felig, P. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  8. Role of glucagon and other hormones in development of diabetic ketoacidosis. Alberti, K.G. Lancet (1975) [Pubmed]
  9. Hyperketonemia increases tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion in cultured U937 monocytes and Type 1 diabetic patients and is apparently mediated by oxidative stress and cAMP deficiency. Jain, S.K., Kannan, K., Lim, G., McVie, R., Bocchini, J.A. Diabetes (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Lethal hypoglycemic ketosis and glyceroluria in mice lacking both the mitochondrial and the cytosolic glycerol phosphate dehydrogenases. Brown, L.J., Koza, R.A., Marshall, L., Kozak, L.P., MacDonald, M.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Alcoholic detosis. Fulop, M., Hoberman, H.D. Diabetes (1975) [Pubmed]
  12. Maternal-fetal carnitine relationship and neonatal ketosis in the rat. Robles-Valdes, C., McGarry, J.D., Foster, D.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  13. The hemodynamic abnormalities in short-term insulin deficiency: the role of prostaglandin inhibition. Avogaro, A., Crepaldi, C., Piarulli, F., Milan, D., Valerio, A., Pavan, P., Sacerdoti, D., Calabrò, A., Macdonald, I., Crepaldi, G., Scognamiglio, R., Tiengo, A. Diabetes (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Persistence of ketosis despite suppression of lipolysis by 16,16-dimethylprostaglandin E2 in experimental diabetic ketoacidosis in rats. Axelrod, L., Slowman, S.D., Lloyd-Jones, P., Martin, D.B. Diabetes (1979) [Pubmed]
  15. Surplus acylcarnitines in the plasma of starved rats derive from the liver. Sandor, A., Cseko, J., Kispal, G., Alkonyi, I. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Glucocorticoid-induced ketoacidosis in gestational diabetes: sequela of the acute treatment of preterm labor. A case report. Bedalov, A., Balasubramanyam, A. Diabetes Care (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Anti-ketogenic effect of glucose in the lactating cow deprived of food. Treacher, R.J., Baird, G.D., Young, J.L. Biochem. J. (1976) [Pubmed]
  18. Acetoacetate protects neuronal cells from oxidative glutamate toxicity. Noh, H.S., Hah, Y.S., Nilufar, R., Han, J., Bong, J.H., Kang, S.S., Cho, G.J., Choi, W.S. J. Neurosci. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Metabolic changes in dairy cows with ketonemia in response to feed restriction and dietary 1,3-butanediol. Drackley, J.K., Richard, M.J., Beitz, D.C., Young, J.W. J. Dairy Sci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Insulin sensitivity in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetics after ketoacidosis and after three months of insulin therapy. Yki-Järvinen, H., Koivisto, V.A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Human brain beta-hydroxybutyrate and lactate increase in fasting-induced ketosis. Pan, J.W., Rothman, T.L., Behar, K.L., Stein, D.T., Hetherington, H.P. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Prepartum monensin for the reduction of energy associated disease in postpartum dairy cows. Duffield, T., Bagg, R., DesCoteaux, L., Bouchard, E., Brodeur, M., DuTremblay, D., Keefe, G., LeBlanc, S., Dick, P. J. Dairy Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Stimulation of ketogenesis by propionate in isolated rat hepatocytes: an explanation for ketosis associated with propionic acidaemia and methylmalonic acidaemia? Rosario, P., Medina, J.M. J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. Evaluation of eight cow-side ketone tests in milk for detection of subclinical ketosis in dairy cows. Geishauser, T., Leslie, K., Tenhag, J., Bashiri, A. J. Dairy Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Effects of somatostatin on established induced ketosis. Fallucca, F., Barbetti, F., Maldonato, A., Spallone, V., Giangrande, L., Gambardella, S. Horm. Metab. Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  26. Elevated blood interleukin-6 levels in hyperketonemic type 1 diabetic patients and secretion by acetoacetate-treated cultured U937 monocytes. Jain, S.K., Kannan, K., Lim, G., Matthews-Greer, J., McVie, R., Bocchini, J.A. Diabetes Care (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Alpha-synuclein protects naive but not dbcAMP-treated dopaminergic cell types from 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium toxicity. Jensen, P.J., Alter, B.J., O'Malley, K.L. J. Neurochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Patients homozygous for the T435N mutation of succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA Transferase (SCOT) do not show permanent ketosis. Fukao, T., Shintaku, H., Kusubae, R., Zhang, G.X., Nakamura, K., Kondo, M., Kondo, N. Pediatr. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Inhibition of glucagon secretion. Young, A. Adv. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Breath acetone is a reliable indicator of ketosis in adults consuming ketogenic meals. Musa-Veloso, K., Likhodii, S.S., Cunnane, S.C. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. A predominant increase of arterial beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration during partial hepatectomies in patients with impaired indocyanine green clearance test. Higashi, S., Tabata, N., Kondo, K.H., Kai, M., Miyamoto, K., Maeda, Y., Setoguchi, T. J. Surg. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Characterization of metabolic changes during a protocol for inducing lactation ketosis in dairy cows. Mills, S.E., Beitz, D.C., Young, J.W. J. Dairy Sci. (1986) [Pubmed]
  33. Use of parenteral medium-chain triglyceride emulsion for maintaining seizure control in a 5-year-old girl with intractable diarrhea. Rosenthal, E., Weissman, B., Kyllonen, K. JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition. (1990) [Pubmed]
  34. Ketosis leads to increased methylglyoxal production on the Atkins diet. Beisswenger, B.G., Delucia, E.M., Lapoint, N., Sanford, R.J., Beisswenger, P.J. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
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