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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Dysfunction and thromboembolism associated with cardiac valve xenografts in adults.

Cardiac valve xenografts often fail relatively early in children. We analyzed the incidence of valve dysfunction and thromboembolism in 253 consecutive adult survivors who received 294 porcine xenograft valves (150 aortic, 125 mitral and 19 tricuspid) from June 1974 to December 1979 (41% of all adult valve replacements). Mean follow-up was 25.6 months (range 9-75 months). Valve dysfunction occurred in four of 294 xenografts (three in mitral position and one in tricuspid position), all four caused by recurrent endocarditis; these four patients survived reoperation and are doing well. Thromboembolism occurred in six of 294 xenografts, none in aortic or tricuspid positions of rhythm or anticoagulation. Four of the six mitral xenografts associated with thromboembolism were in the 16 patients who had atrial fibrillation and received aspirin and dipyridamole but no warfarin (12% per patient-year), and two were in the 14 patients who were in sinus rhythm and were not taking medication, one of whom had recurrent Candida endocarditis. No thromboembolism occurred in mitral xenografts with sinus rhythm and antiplatelet agents. Thromboembolism did not occur in patients who were in atrial fibrillation and receiving warfarin anticoagulation. Late death (30 of 253) was unrelated to valve dysfunction, and only one death resulted from thromboembolism. This study showed excellent xenograft performance for as long as 75 months. Valve dysfunction occurred only with recurrent endocarditis, and thromboembolism occurred after mitral replacement, especially in patients who were in atrial fibrillation and were not receiving anticoagulants.[1]


  1. Dysfunction and thromboembolism associated with cardiac valve xenografts in adults. Geha, A.S., Holter, A.R., Langou, R.A., Laks, H., Hammond, G.L. Circulation (1981) [Pubmed]
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