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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Chloromethyl ketones block induction of nitric oxide synthase in murine macrophages by preventing activation of nuclear factor-kappa B.

N-alpha-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) and N-alpha-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK), serine protease inhibitors, block many cytotoxic functions of immune cells including superoxide anion production, cytokine release, cell-mediated cytolysis, and nitric oxide (NO)-related macrophage functions. IFN-gamma/LPS-induced NO production from murine peritoneal macrophages was inhibited by TPCK and TLCK in a dose-dependent manner (EC50s: approximately 20 microM for TPCK and approximately 30 microM for TLCK). Viability exceeded 91% with 25 microM TPCK and with 80 microM TLCK. When TPCK treatment was delayed until 1 h of activation, the inhibitory effect was markedly reduced. After 2 h of the activation, TPCK was not effective anymore. Addition of either TNF-alpha or conditioned media from IFN-gamma/LPS-activated macrophage culture did not prevent the inhibitory effect of TPCK. Neither TPCK nor TLCK reduced enzymatic NO production from macrophage lysates. Lysates from TPCK-treated cells did not generate NO even after supplementing necessary cofactors for NO synthase. Immunoblotting analysis showed that simultaneous treatment of TPCK with IFN-gamma/LPS abolished the NO synthase expression, whereas delayed addition of TPCK was either partially effective or not effective at all. Furthermore, TPCK treatment reduced the concentration of mRNA for NO synthase without decreasing mRNA stability. Thus, the serine protease inhibitors directly blocked an early event in expression of NO synthase. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay indicated that TPCK blocked the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B, a transcription factor necessary for NO synthase induction. TPCK also blocked disappearance of I kappa B from cytosolic fraction, and nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B subunits p50 and p65. Delaying the addition of TPCK by 10 min partially prevented the inhibition of the NF-kappa B activation process and allowed partial resuming of NO production. Thus, TPCK inhibited NO synthase induction by blocking NF-kappa B activation.[1]


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