The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Possible mechanisms for PhIP-DNA adduct formation in the mammary gland of female Sprague-Dawley rats.

2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), the most abundant heterocyclic amine in fried beef, is mammary gland carcinogen in rats. Using the 32P-postlabeling method, PhIP-DNA adduct levels were measured in mammary epithelial cells isolated from female Sprague-Dawley rats given 10 daily doses of PhIP (75 mg/kg, p.o.) according to a protocol previously shown to induce mammary gland cancer. At 24 h, 48 h, 1 week and 5 weeks after the last dose of PhIP, PhIP-DNA adduct levels [relative adduct labeling (RAL) x 10(7), mean +/- SD] were 10.2 +/- 0.7, 7.9 +/- 2.7, 2.2 +/- 0.6 and 0.9 +/- 0.03 respectively. When isolated rat mammary epithelial cells (from untreated rats) were incubated in vitro with N-hydroxy-PhIP (45 microM, 1 h, 37 degrees C), PhIP-DNA adducts were detected in cell DNA (RAL = approximately 97 x 10(7); however, no adducts were detected in cells incubated with PhIP (200 microM, 15 h, 37 degrees C). Incubating cells with pentachlorophenol, an inhibitor of acetyltransferase, or incubating cells at 0-4 degrees C, reduced N-hydroxy-PhIP adduct levels by 45 and 75% respectively, indicating that formation of N-hydroxy-PhIP adducts was largely due to metabolic activation. Further studies showed that rat mammary gland microsomes had little capacity to N-hydroxylate PhIP, as assayed by the mutagenic activation of PhIP in the Ames Salmonella assay. In contrast, N-hydroxy-PhIP was metabolically activated by cytosol-catalyzed PhIP-DNA adduct formation to calf thymus DNA incubated in vitro with N-hydroxy-PhIP (2 microM) in the presence of acetyl CoA. Notably, mammary cytosolic O-acetyltransferase activation of N-hydroxy-IQ or N-hydroxy-MeIQx. All three N-hydroxylamines were activated via cytosolic proline aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and phosphorylase, although the activities of these enzymes were approximately 100-fold lower than O-acetyltransferase. No mammary cytosolic sulfotransferase activation could be detected with any of the N-hydroxylamines. Our results are consistent with the notion that PhIP-DNA adduct formation and initiation of carcinogenesis in the rat mammary gland may be associated with N-hydroxylation of PhIP outside the mammary gland, transport of the N-hydroxylamine to the mammary gland and subsequent in situ O-acetyltransferase-catalyzed activation of N-hydroxy-PhIP.[1]


  1. Possible mechanisms for PhIP-DNA adduct formation in the mammary gland of female Sprague-Dawley rats. Ghoshal, A., Davis, C.D., Schut, H.A., Snyderwine, E.G. Carcinogenesis (1995) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities