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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Deficiency of 1-methylguanosine in tRNA from Salmonella typhimurium induces frameshifting by quadruplet translocation.

The trmD gene encodes the tRNA(m1G37)methyltransferase, which methylates guanosine (G) to 1-methylguanosine (m1G) at position 37 of tRNAs that read CUN (leucine), CCN (proline), and CGG (arginine) codons. A mutant, trmD3, has previously been isolated, which at high temperature lacks m1G in tRNA, and this deficiency was correlated with a +1 frameshifting activity. In this study, the mechanism of this trmD3-induced frameshift involving mutant tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Leu) species has been investigated. Potential frameshifting sites for proline tRNAs, CCC-N, were efficiently suppressed in the mutant strain. Hybrid beta-galactosidases encoded by plasmid constructs containing the sites CCC-U and CCC-A were subjected to amino-terminal sequencing. The protein sequences demonstrated that a quadruplet translocation had occurred and that a proline was inserted at these sites, suggesting that a tRNA(Pro) deficient in m1G is the frameshifting agent. Therefore, a mechanism involving a quadruplet codon-anticodon interaction is favoured for trmD3-dependent +1 frameshifting. Of the four potential sites for tRNA(Leu) (CCU-N), two, CCU-U and CCU-C, were significantly suppressed in the trmD3 mutant. Thus, species of tRNA(Leu) may also act as +1 frameshift suppressors. No -1 frameshifting activity was found with the trmD3 mutant.[1]


  1. Deficiency of 1-methylguanosine in tRNA from Salmonella typhimurium induces frameshifting by quadruplet translocation. Hagervall, T.G., Tuohy, T.M., Atkins, J.F., Björk, G.R. J. Mol. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
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