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Disease relevance of Quadruplets


High impact information on Quadruplets

  • Evidence is provided for a genetic code in which AGA codes for serine and the quadruplet ATAA is used in initiation of translation [3].
  • We show that in cultured rat hippocampal neurons a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-mediated potentiation process and a calcineurin-mediated depression process can be activated concomitantly by spike triplets or quadruplets [4].
  • The Quadruplet Translocation Model proposes that suppressor tRNAs cause frameshifting by recognizing an expanded mRNA codon [5].
  • Systematic mutagenesis of both suprabranch guanosine quadruplets (G(4)) revealed a key role of central G residues in splicing enhancement, whereas cytosines in these positions had the most prominent repressive effects [6].
  • 31P NMR spectra of neutralized perchloric acid extracts of spinach leaves showed well defined multipeak resonances (quadruplet) of intracellular phytate [7].

Biological context of Quadruplets


Anatomical context of Quadruplets


Associations of Quadruplets with chemical compounds

  • Limitation for isoleucine provokes frameshifting when the quadruplet is followed by either isoleucine codon aua or auc, but not when it is followed by a lysine codon [13].
  • With this mRNA-tRNA combination and at least partial inactivation of release factor 1, the UAGA quadruplet specifies a leucine residue with an efficiency of 13 to 26 % [14].
  • Changes in specific amino acid quadruplets in V1, V2, C3, V4, V5, and CD4 domains of gp120 and gp40 were seen to correlate with the neutralization clusters with most of the specific changes occurring in the V4 region [15].
  • Evidence is presented which suggests that when there is a purine base at position 32 of this 5' flanking tRNA, it influences decoding of the UAGA quadruplet [14].
  • A single 2'-hydroxyl group converts B-DNA to A-DNA. Crystal structure of the DNA-RNA chimeric decamer duplex d(CCGGC)r(G)d(CCGG) with a novel intermolecular G-C base-paired quadruplet [16].

Gene context of Quadruplets

  • The first gene in the quadruplet, epsilon I, shows unexpectedly high homology with the human epsilon globin gene both in coding and non-coding regions, and encodes a globin protein that is 90% homologous to human epsilon [17].
  • Two other mutants of argV, inferred to have normal-size, seven-base anticodon loops, were also found to be capable of four-base-decoding demonstrating that quadruplet translocation promoted by mutant argV does not require an enlarged anticodon loop [18].
  • Surveillance cultures of the anterior nares of all patients and the quadruplets' parents were performed to detect MRSA carriage [1].
  • As the D. yakuba COI gene lacks a standard translation initiation codon, we consider the possibility that the quadruplet ATAA may serve this function [19].
  • Limitation for lysine-tRNA provokes leftward frameshifting when the slippery quadruplet is followed by either lysine codon aag or aaa, but not when followed by an isoleucine or leucine codon [13].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Quadruplets


  1. Nosocomial transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from a mother to her preterm quadruplet infants. Morel, A.S., Wu, F., Della-Latta, P., Cronquist, A., Rubenstein, D., Saiman, L. American journal of infection control. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Transmission of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from breast milk in the neonatal intensive care unit. Gastelum, D.T., Dassey, D., Mascola, L., Yasuda, L.M. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Drosophila melanogaster mitochondrial DNA, a novel organization and genetic code. de Bruijn, M.H. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Coactivation and timing-dependent integration of synaptic potentiation and depression. Wang, H.X., Gerkin, R.C., Nauen, D.W., Bi, G.Q. Nat. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Translational frameshifting: implications for the mechanism of translational frame maintenance. Farabaugh, P.J. Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Position-dependent repression and promotion of DQB1 intron 3 splicing by GGGG motifs. Královicová, J., Vorechovsky, I. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. 31P NMR studies of spinach leaves and their chloroplasts. Bligny, R., Gardestrom, P., Roby, C., Douce, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. The effect of fetal number on the development of hypertensive conditions of pregnancy. Day, M.C., Barton, J.R., O'Brien, J.M., Istwan, N.B., Sibai, B.M. Obstetrics and gynecology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. A quadruplet pregnancy following ovulation induction with pulsatile luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. Heineman, M.J., Bouckaert, P.X., Schellekens, L.A. Fertil. Steril. (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Improved results in multifetal pregnancy reduction: a report of 72 cases. Lipitz, S., Yaron, Y., Shalev, J., Achiron, R., Zolti, M., Mashiach, S. Fertil. Steril. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Alpha-fetoprotein concentration in cord blood from twins and from a set of quadruplets--a case of superfetatio? Norgaard-Pedersen, B., Moller, J., Trolle, D., Sorensen, S.A. Hum. Hered. (1976) [Pubmed]
  12. Maternal and perinatal outcomes of multiple pregnancy following IVF-ET. Makhseed, M., Al-Sharhan, M., Egbase, P., Al-Essa, M., Grudzinskas, J.G. International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. On the mechanism of leftward frameshifting at several hungry codons. Barak, Z., Lindsley, D., Gallant, J. J. Mol. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Quadruplet codons: implications for code expansion and the specification of translation step size. Moore, B., Persson, B.C., Nelson, C.C., Gesteland, R.F., Atkins, J.F. J. Mol. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Study of the dynamics of neutralization escape mutants in a chimpanzee naturally infected with the simian immunodeficiency virus SIVcpz-ant. Nyambi, P.N., Lewi, P., Peeters, M., Janssens, W., Heyndrickx, L., Fransen, K., Andries, K., Vanden Haesevelde, M., Heeney, J., Piot, P., van der Groen, G. J. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. A single 2'-hydroxyl group converts B-DNA to A-DNA. Crystal structure of the DNA-RNA chimeric decamer duplex d(CCGGC)r(G)d(CCGG) with a novel intermolecular G-C base-paired quadruplet. Ban, C., Ramakrishnan, B., Sundaralingam, M. J. Mol. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Sequence and linkage of the goat epsilon I and epsilon II beta-globin genes. Shapiro, S.G., Schon, E.A., Townes, T.M., Lingrel, J.B. J. Mol. Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Seven, eight and nine-membered anticodon loop mutants of tRNA(2Arg) which cause +1 frameshifting. Tolerance of DHU arm and other secondary mutations. Tuohy, T.M., Thompson, S., Gesteland, R.F., Atkins, J.F. J. Mol. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Genes for cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, URF2, and three tRNAs in Drosophila mitochondrial DNA. Clary, D.O., Wolstenholme, D.R. Nucleic Acids Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 1998. Results generated from European registers by ESHRE. European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. Nygren, K.G., Andersen, A.N. Hum. Reprod. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Terbutaline pump tocolysis in high-order multiple gestation. Elliott, J.P., Flynn, M.J., Kaemmerer, E.L., Radin, T.G. The Journal of reproductive medicine. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. An ultrasound-guided procedure to administer a label of DNA synthesis into fetal sheep. Greenwood, P.L., Slepetis, R.M., Hermanson, J.W., Bell, A.W. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
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