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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Activation of serine/threonine protein kinases and early growth response 1 gene expression by tumor necrosis factor in human myeloid leukemia cells.

The early growth response 1 (EGR-1) gene is induced by mitogenic and differentiating signals in diverse cell types. The present studies have examined the effects of TNF-alpha on the induction of EGR-1 expression in human myeloid leukemia cells and the potential cytoplasmic signaling cascades that transduce TNF-induced signals to the nucleus. The results demonstrate that treatment of HL-60 cells with TNF is associated with the transient induction of the EGR-1 gene. The results also demonstrate that TNF treatment is associated with activation of the serine/threonine kinase, pp90rsk, which acts upstream to EGR-1 gene induction. Partial purification of pp90rsk by affinity chromatography demonstrated an increase in S6 peptide phosphorylation in response to TNF treatment. Because TNF activates sphingomyelin hydrolysis, we also studied the effects of sphingomyelinase (SMase) on induction of EGR-1 and pp90rsk. The results demonstrate that SMase also activates pp90rsk and induces EGR-1 gene expression. Previous work has demonstrated that mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activates pp90rsk. The present studies further show that treatment with TNF or SMase is associated with induction of both the pp42/44 MAP and the related Jun kinases. Induction of pp42/44 MAP kinase activity is temporally related to activation of pp90rsk and the EGR-1 gene. These findings support the involvement of an MAP kinase/pp90rsk/EGR-1 cascade in the response of myeloid leukemia cells to TNF.[1]


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