The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Degradation, metabolism and toxicity of synthetic pyrethroids.

Synthetic pyrethroidal compounds undergo biodegradation in mammals both oxidatively and hydrolytically, and depending on the type of compound, either of the pathways may predominate. Thus, (+) - or (+/-) -trans isomers of the chrysanthemumate ester of primary alcohols such as fenothrin, furamethrin, proparthrin, resmethrin, and tetramethrin (and possibly permethrin, too) are metabolized mainly through hydrolysis of the ester linkage, with subsequent oxidation and/or conjugation of the component alcohol and acid moieties. On the other hand, the corresponding (+)-cis enantiometers and chrysanthemumate of secondary alcohols like allethrin are resistant to hydrolytic attack, and biodegraded via oxidation at various sites of the molecule. These rapid metabolic degradations, together with the presumable incomplete absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, would generally contribute to the low acute toxicity of synthetic pyrethroids. These compounds are neither skin irritants nor skin sensitizers, and inhalation toxicity as well as dermal toxicity are fairly low. Neither is teratogenic in rats, mice, and/or rabbits or mutagenic on various bacterial strains. Subacute and chronic feeding of higher amounts of the compounds to rats invariably causes some histopathological changes in liver; however, these are neither indicative nor suggestive of tumorigenicity. Based on existing toxicological information, the present recommended use patterns might afford sufficient safety margin on human population. However, in extending usage to agricultural pest control, much more extensive investigations should be forthcoming from both chemical and biological aspects, since there is scant information on the fate of these pyrethroids in the environment. Also several of the compounds may be very toxic to certain kinds of fish and arthropods.[1]


  1. Degradation, metabolism and toxicity of synthetic pyrethroids. Miyamoto, J. Environ. Health Perspect. (1976) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities