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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Biochemistry of cytosolic sulfotransferases involved in bioactivation.

Numerous studies have indicated that two classes of cytosolic STs are involved in the bioactivation of procarcinogens and drugs to reactive electrophiles, especially in rodent tissues. These two classes of STs are the hydroxysteroid STs, which are involved in the conjugation of hydroxymethyl PAHs, and the phenol STs involved in the sulfation of alkenylbenzenes and N-hydroxyarylamines. Purification studies of rat liver STs have clearly indicated that specific isoforms of hydroxysteroid and phenol STs are capable of sulfating procarcinogens in vitro. Rat liver STa and BAST I are structurally similar hydroxysteroid STs, which have been shown to sulfate and bioactive HMBA. Molecular cloning studies of the rat hydroxysteroid STs indicate that these enzymes are probably part of a family of closely related genes. The single human hydroxysteroid ST that has been characterized is very similar to the rat enzymes, but its role in the bioactivation of hydroxymethyl PAHs has not been established. Phenol STs have been demonstrated to have an important role in the bioactivation of alkenylbenzenes and N-hydroxyarylamines. Purification of rat phenol STs has identified several different forms, but only some appear to be involved in bioactivation of procarcinogens. Four isoforms (HAST I and II, AST III and IV) are apparently responsible for the majority of N-hydroxyarylamine sulfation. The relationship between these enzymes has not been established but they may represent similar enzymes. Different isoforms of rat phenol ST are also involved in the bioactivation of procarcinogens and drugs. However, the role of these phenol STs, PST-1, Mx-ST, and paracetamol ST, in carcinogenesis requires further study. In human tissues, only two phenol STs, P-PST and M-PST, have been identified. The role of these enzymes or unidentified STs in the sulfation of N-hydroxyarylamine procarcinogens has not yet been established. Initial reports of the molecular cloning and expression of the rat and human phenol ST genes will provide a valuable mechanism for the characterization of roles of the individual enzymes in bioactivation.[1]


  1. Biochemistry of cytosolic sulfotransferases involved in bioactivation. Falany, C.N., Wilborn, T.W. Adv. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
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