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Gene Review

Sult2a1  -  sulfotransferase family 2A,...

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: STa, Smp-2, St2, St2a1, Sth2
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Disease relevance of Sult2a1

  • Intragastric injections of heat-stable (ST) toxin of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) were given to produce fluid accumulation, defined as a gut weight: carcass weight value of > 0.085 [1].
  • Hence, in DEN-initiated rats, the effects of promoting regimens of 9-OH-2-FAA or 9-oxo-2-FAA, 15 oral doses at 50 and 100 mumol/kg of body weight, were compared to those of 2-FAA at 50 mumol/kg of body weight and of the vehicle on the activity of N-hydroxy(OH)-2-FAA sulfotransferase (ST), an isozyme of AST IV and AST IV expression and distribution [2].
  • Inhibition of androgen action by dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase transfected in PC-3 prostate cancer cells [3].
  • Glucose absorption and glucose-facilitated water transport were assessed in rats exposed to semipurified preparations of the heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae by in vivo jejunal perfusion of these toxins alone and with varying amounts of glucose [4].
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Guanylin and heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) stimulate intestinal Cl- secretion via activation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR)-encoded Cl- channel [5].

Psychiatry related information on Sult2a1

  • The present findings represent the first analog of the DST in the learned helplessness model of depression [6].
  • Elevated ratings of anxiety and agitation in Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST) nonsuppressors suggest a role for psychological stress in the generation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortical (HPAC) abnormalities characteristic of depression [6].

High impact information on Sult2a1

  • Short circuit current (ISC), a measure of Cl- secretion, was increased to a similar extent by STa and by 8-Br-cGMP, a selective activator of cGK, except in distal colon and in monolayers of T84 human colon carcinoma cells in which cGK II was not detected [7].
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data provide further evidence for an important role of cGK II in STa-mediated Cl- secretion in native rat intestinal epithelium [8].
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxins (STa) provoke electrogenic Cl- secretion in the intestine through a guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent signal transduction pathway [8].
  • Prostaglandin E2 and 8-bromo-cAMP but not STa/guanylin also transiently increased paracellular permeability [5].
  • Therefore, the effect of guanylin/STa and other secretagogues on rat duodenal HCO3- secretion was studied [5].

Chemical compound and disease context of Sult2a1


Biological context of Sult2a1


Anatomical context of Sult2a1

  • Significant intrazonal heterogeneity in STa levels within hepatocytes was also observed, particularly in livers of female rats [16].
  • This indicates that APs, unlike STa, do not directly stimulate the colonic epithelial cells but possibly provoke Cl- secretion by release of a neurotransmitter in the submucosa [17].
  • Conversely, APs, but not STa, induced a large increase in intracellular cGMP levels in the undifferentiated small intestinal cell lines IEC-6, IEC-18, and INT407 [17].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Guanylin and STa stimulate electrogenic HCO3- secretion in rat duodenum, most likely via CFTR Cl- channel activation, but the different relationship for HCO3- to Isc in cGMP-than in cAMP-stimulated anion secretion suggests a different cellular source and/or signaling pathways [5].
  • Immunohistochemical detection of cGMP in this tissue provided evidence for a different localization pattern of cells responding with an increase in cGMP levels to STa (colonocytes and goblet cells) or AP (specific cells in the submucosa) in rat proximal colon [17].

Associations of Sult2a1 with chemical compounds

  • Here, for the first time, we have demonstrated that AST-IV and STa could be induced in intestine by tamoxifen [18].
  • ST-40 is active for all three substrates, whereas ST-20 is mainly active for cortisol [19].
  • The two flavonol STs of F. chloraefolia also shared significant sequence similarities with steroid and aryl STs found in animal tissues and with the senescence marker protein 2 isolated from rat liver, suggesting an evolutionary link between plant and animal STs [20].
  • Compared to the adult male, SMP-2 mRNA is found in higher amounts in the prepubertal and senescent male rat livers which show relative androgen insensitivity [21].
  • In some diethylnitrosamine/phenobarbital-treated rats, a small number of atypical foci were observed, most of them showing enhanced expression of STa and unchanged to moderately increased ATPase activity [22].

Other interactions of Sult2a1

  • In addition, ST-20/21 and ST-60 expression reached a peak at 30 days of age in male rats, although ST-40/41 reached its highest value in male rats at 15 days of age [23].
  • These results indicate that, whereas the overall hepatic concentrations of these enzymes are clearly sex-dependent, the intralobular distributions of AST IV and STa are characteristic of each particular sulfotransferase [16].
  • On the basis of its immunochemical reactivity, SMP-3 (Mr = 19,500) is identified as alpha 2u-globulin while the mRNAs for SMP-1 (Mr = 28,500) and SMP-2 (Mr = 26,300) code for two yet uncharacterized proteins [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Sult2a1


  1. The effect of Escherichia coli heat-stable (STA) enterotoxin on in vitro uptake of amino acids by small intestine of sucking rats during fluid accumulation. Tin-Aung, n.u.l.l., Khin-Maung-U, n.u.l.l., Wai-Wai-Than, n.u.l.l., Thida-Aung, n.u.l.l. Br. J. Nutr. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Aryl sulfotransferase IV deficiency in rat liver carcinogenesis initiated with diethylnitrosamine and promoted with N-2-fluorenylacetamide or its C-9-oxidized metabolites. Malejka-Giganti, D., Ringer, D.P., Vijayaraghavan, P., Kiehlbauch, C.C., Kong, J. Exp. Mol. Pathol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Inhibition of androgen action by dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase transfected in PC-3 prostate cancer cells. Chan, J., Song, C.S., Matusik, R.J., Chatterjee, B., Roy, A.K. Chem. Biol. Interact. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Reversal of jejunal water secretion by glucose in rats exposed to coliform enterotoxins. Klipstein, F.A., Engert, R.F. Gastroenterology (1978) [Pubmed]
  5. Guanylin strongly stimulates rat duodenal HCO3- secretion: proposed mechanism and comparison with other secretagogues. Guba, M., Kuhn, M., Forssmann, W.G., Classen, M., Gregor, M., Seidler, U. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Learned helplessness: an experimental model of the DST in rats. Haracz, J.L., Minor, T.R., Wilkins, J.N., Zimmermann, E.G. Biol. Psychiatry (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Endogenous expression of type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase mRNA and protein in rat intestine. Implications for cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. Markert, T., Vaandrager, A.B., Gambaryan, S., Pöhler, D., Häusler, C., Walter, U., De Jonge, H.R., Jarchau, T., Lohmann, S.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate-dependent protein kinase II mediates heat-stable enterotoxin-provoked chloride secretion in rat intestine. Vaandrager, A.B., Bot, A.G., De Jonge, H.R. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Characterization of the receptor for heat-stable enterotoxin from Escherichia coli in rat intestine. Kuno, T., Kamisaki, Y., Waldman, S.A., Gariepy, J., Schoolnik, G., Murad, F. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Vagotomy inhibits the jejunal fluid secretion activated by luminal ileal Escherichia coli STa in the rat in vivo. Rolfe, V.E., Levin, R.J. Gut (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Lipid peroxidation and electrogenic ion transport in the jejunum of the vitamin E deficient rat. Lindley, K.J., Goss-Sampson, M.A., Muller, D.P., Milla, P.J. Gut (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Characterization of the mechanism of action of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin. Dreyfus, L.A., Jaso-Friedmann, L., Robertson, D.C. Infect. Immun. (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. An intracellular adenine nucleotide binding site inhibits guanyly cyclase C by a guanine nucleotide-dependent mechanism. Parkinson, S.J., Waldman, S.A. Biochemistry (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. cDNA cloning of the hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase STa sharing a strong homology in amino acid sequence with the senescence marker protein SMP-2 in rat livers. Ogura, K., Kajita, J., Narihata, H., Watabe, T., Ozawa, S., Nagata, K., Yamazoe, Y., Kato, R. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Cloning and sequence analysis of a rat liver cDNA encoding hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase. Ogura, K., Kajita, J., Narihata, H., Watabe, T., Ozawa, S., Nagata, K., Yamazoe, Y., Kato, R. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Enzyme- and sex-specific differences in the intralobular localizations and distributions of aryl sulfotransferase IV (tyrosine-ester sulfotransferase) and alcohol (hydroxysteroid) sulfotransferase a in rat liver. Chen, G., Baron, J., Duffel, M.W. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Atriopeptins and Escherichia coli enterotoxin STa have different sites of action in mammalian intestine. Vaandrager, A.B., Bot, A.G., De Vente, J., De Jonge, H.R. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Tamoxifen induction of aryl sulfotransferase and hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase in male and female rat liver and intestine. Maiti, S., Chen, G. Drug Metab. Dispos. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Construction and expression of chimeric rat liver hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase isozymes. Tamura, H., Morioka, Y., Homma, H., Matsui, M. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Molecular characterization of two plant flavonol sulfotransferases. Varin, L., DeLuca, V., Ibrahim, R.K., Brisson, N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNA for androgen-repressible rat liver protein, SMP-2. Chatterjee, B., Majumdar, D., Ozbilen, O., Murty, C.V., Roy, A.K. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Development of hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase-deficient lesions during hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Werle-Schneider, G., Schwarz, M., Glatt, H. Carcinogenesis (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Ontogeny and hormonal basis of female-dominant rat hepatic sulfotransferases. Liu, L., Klaassen, C.D. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Differential regulation of the messenger RNA for three major senescence marker proteins in male rat liver. Chatterjee, B., Nath, T.S., Roy, A.K. J. Biol. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  25. Bacterial expression and functional characterization of a rat thyroid hormone sulfotransferase, ST1B1. Fujita, K., Nagata, K., Watanabe, E., Shimada, M., Yamazoe, Y. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. On the nature of rat hepatic and mouse olfactory sulfotransferases. Matsui, M., Tamura, H., Nagai, F., Homma, H., Miyawaki, A., Mikoshiba, K. Chem. Biol. Interact. (1998) [Pubmed]
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