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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Treatment outcome of 600 chemically dependent patients treated in a multimodal inpatient program including aversion therapy and pentothal interviews.

A sample of 600 patients treated in a multimodal treatment program using aversion therapy and narcotherapy at three Schick freestanding addiction treatment hospitals and one Schick unit in a general hospital were followed-up. Contact was made a minimum of 12 months and as many as 20 months after completion of treatment (mean 14.7 mos.). Telephone contact was made by an independent research organization with 427 of the patients (71.2%). Of these, 65.1% were totally abstinent for 1 year after treatment and 60.2% were abstinent until follow-up a mean of 14.7 months later. Fifty-two percent of the alcoholics were using or dependent on other drugs at admission. Seventy-five of these treated for cocaine dependence and 47 treated for marijuana dependence. The cocaine 12 month and "total" abstinence (mean 14.7 mos.) rates for the 49 contacted patients were 83.7% and 81.6%, respectively. The marijuana 12 month and "total" abstinence (mean 14.7 mos.) rates for the 30 contacted patients was 70.0% for both groups. Abstinence rates for alcohol and/or other drugs were also calculated including noncontacted patients who had chart documented evidence of relapse. The most powerful predictor of success was whether or not all urges to drink or use had been eliminated (presumably by aversion therapy). Of additional importance was the use of support groups and reinforcement treatments after completion of the initial hospitalization. The two most prominent factors initiating a relapse were "intrapersonal determinants" such as stress from work or marriage/family relationships and "interpersonal determinants" such as being around others who were drinking/using or being at a celebration or special event. The two factors were of equal importance in the alcoholics. However, interpersonal determinants were far more important in the cocaine and marijuana treated patients. Increased utilization of reinforcement treatments was associated with decreased urges to drink/use and increased abstinence rates. In contrast, increased frequency of support group utilization was associated with increased urges to drink/use and lower abstinence rates. This suggests the need to take seriously patient reports of "urges" in the first year after treatment and to carefully assess the cause and initiate or update an individualized plan of treatment. Such treatment may include increased reinforcement treatments, treatment of depression, and additional assistance in coping with intrapersonal and interpersonal determinants of relapse.[1]


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