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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Fibrinolysis in patients with acute ischaemic heart disease. With particular reference to systemic effects of tissue-type plasminogen activator treatment on fibrinolysis, coagulation and complement pathways.

The plasminogen activator systems in the blood, the coagulation system, and the complement pathways are reviewed. The review describes the role of the vascular intima in activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis and the interrelations between the complement system and haemostatic mechanisms. Physiological activation of fibrinolysis may be triggered by and limited to fibrin because of a special affinity of plasminogen and plasminogen activators. The binding of plasminogen to fibrin is regulated by histidine-rich glycoprotein, and the primary physiological inhibitor of generated plasmin is alpha 2-antiplasmin and especially the plasminogen-binding form of this immediate plasmin inhibitor. Plasminogen activator inhibitors in the blood, that is, notably plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), bind circulating tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA). However, local fibrinolysis in vivo mediated by t-PA may be independent of complex formation between plasminogen activator inhibitors and t-PA in the fluid phase. Circulating plasminogen activator inhibitors might regulate fibrinolysis by increasing the clearance of t-PA from the blood. The urokinase-type and factor XII-dependent fibrinolytic proactivator system can be activated following t-PA-mediated generation of plasmin, and could thus serve as an amplification system of t-PA-induced fibrinolysis. It is claimed that the as yet uncharacterized proactivator is essential for optimal generation of plasminogen activator activity by the factor XII-dependent fibrinolytic system. The normal antithrombotic condition of the vascular intima probably results from lack of tissue factor activity and the presence of significant antithrombotic components comprising, among others, antithrombin III and the protein C-protein S system. A number of pathophysiologic stimuli, notably mediators of the acute phase response such as the cytokines interleukin-1 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (cachectin), have the potential to induce the vascular endothelium to express procoagulant activity. Vascular endothelium promoting coagulant activity releases increased amounts of t-PA antigen and PAI-1 antigen into the circulation, and elevated levels in the blood of both may be regarded as a marker of a generalized procoagulant condition involving the vascular endothelium. In a prospective study in patients with unstable angina pectoris, patients in whom disease progresses and acute myocardial infarction develops, have increased amounts of t-PA antigen and PAI-1 antigen in the blood. This suggests that the procoagulant potential and atherosclerotic process of the vascular intima is more pronounced in the risk group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[1]


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