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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

ATP-dependent degradation of a mutant serine: pyruvate/alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase in a primary hyperoxaluria type 1 case.

Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH 1), an inborn error of glyoxylate metabolism characterized by excessive synthesis of oxalate and glycolate, is caused by a defect in serine:pyruvate/alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase ( SPT/ AGT). This enzyme is peroxisomal in human liver. Recently, we cloned SPT/ AGT-cDNA from a PH 1 case, and demonstrated a point mutation of T to C in the coding region of the SPT/ AGT gene encoding a Ser to Pro substitution at residue 205 (Nishiyama, K., T. Funai, R. Katafuchi, F. Hattori, K. Onoyama, and A. Ichiyama. 1991. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 176:1093-1099). In the liver of this patient, SPT/ AGT was very low with respect to not only activity but also protein detectable on Western blot and immunoprecipitation analyses. Immunocytochemically detectable SPT/ AGT labeling was also low, although it was detected predominantly in peroxisomes. On the other hand, the level of translatable SPT/AGT-mRNA was higher than normal, indicating that SPT/ AGT had been synthesized in the patient's liver at least as effectively as in normal liver. Rapid degradation of the mutant SPT/ AGT was then demonstrated in transfected COS cells and transformed Escherichia coli, accounting for the low level of immunodetectable mutant SPT/ AGT in the patient's liver. The mutant SPT/ AGT was also degraded much faster than normal in an in vitro system with a rabbit reticulocyte extract, and the degradation in vitro was ATP dependent. These results indicate that a single amino acid substitution in SPT/ AGT found in the PH1 case leads to a reduced half-life of this protein. It appears that the mutant SPT/ AGT is recognized in cells as an abnormal protein to be eliminated by degradation.[1]


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