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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Carcinogenicity of 4-methoxyphenol and 4-methylcatechol in F344 rats.

The carcinogenic potentials of 4-methoxyphenol (4-MP) and 4-methylcatechol (4-MC), phenolic compounds which are structurally similar to the known forestomach carcinogen BHA and the glandular stomach carcinogen catechol respectively, and cause considerably enhanced cell proliferation and cytotoxicities in rat forestomach and/or glandular stomach epithelium, were examined in male and female F344 rats. Groups of 30 male and female animals were administered diets containing 2% 4-MP or 2% 4-MC for 104 weeks. Histopathological findings in the 4-MP case included atypical hyperplasias (male, 67%, female, 37%), papillomas (50%, 23%) and squamous-cell carcinomas (77%, 20%) in the forestomach. 4-MC induced forestomach papillomas (70%, 93%) and squamous-cell carcinomas (53%, 37%), also glandular stomach submucosal hyperplasias (90%, 93%), adenomas (100%, 100%) and adenocarcinomas (57%, 47%), with ulceration or erosion. The degree of differentiation of the squamous-cell carcinomas induced by 4-MP was less than with 4-MC. The present study demonstrated unequivocal forestomach carcinogenicity for 4-MP and forestomach and glandular stomach carcinogenicity for 4-MC, with cytotoxicity and cell proliferation both appearing as important factors for these non-genotoxic carcinogens.[1]


  1. Carcinogenicity of 4-methoxyphenol and 4-methylcatechol in F344 rats. Asakawa, E., Hirose, M., Hagiwara, A., Takahashi, S., Ito, N. Int. J. Cancer (1994) [Pubmed]
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