The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The efficient bovine insulin presentation capacity of bone marrow-derived macrophages activated by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor correlates with a high level of intracellular reducing thiols.

Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM phi) were shown before to function as antigen-presenting cells. We show here, that the antigen presentation capacity of BMM phi depends on the nature of the antigen and is differently regulated by the lymphokines interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). When bovine insulin (BI) was employed as antigen, only BMM phi treated with GM-CSF (GM-CSF-M phi) were efficient presenters, but when presentation of the antigens ovalbumin and conalbumin was tested, IFN-gamma-pulsed BMM phi (IFN-gamma-M phi) proved superior to GM-CSF-M phi. The lack of efficient BI presentation function of IFN-gamma-M phi was only obvious, when native BI was used as antigen. Preprocessed BI was presented by IFN-gamma-M phi with drastically higher efficiency than by GM-CSF-M phi. Because processing of insulin depends on reduction of disulfide bonds, we analyzed the content of intracellular reducing thiols within IFN-gamma-M phi, GM-CSF-M phi, and untreated BMM phi. Only after stimulation with GM-CSF did the amount of reduced glutathione and cysteine strongly increase, while IFN-gamma did not efficiently augment the intracellular content of both thiols. These findings suggest that the lymphokines IFN-gamma and GM-CSF differently interfere with the processing capacity of BMM phi by differently regulating the intracellular concentration of the thiols reduced glutathione and cysteine. A high level of these thiols induced by GM-CSF correlates with a prominent capacity to present the antigen bovine insulin.[1]


WikiGenes - Universities