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Gene Review

CSF2  -  colony stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte...

Bos taurus

Synonyms: CSF, GM-CSF, GMCSF
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Disease relevance of CSF2

  • At the time of increased CSF protein concentration during an acute viral encephalitis these differences were narrowed but not eliminated [1].
  • Serum and CSF from these SSPE patients inhibited the cellular response to SSPE-infected cells but not to measles-infected cells [2].
  • Treatment of BBM with rBoIFN-gamma, rBoGM-CSF or E. coli LPS resulted in decreased intracellular survival of H. somnus at 18 and 48 h, whereas BBM treated with rBoTNF-alpha or rBoIL-1beta had reduced intracellular survival of H. somnus only at 18 h [3].
  • These results pave the way for future studies on the potential role of GM-CSF for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B by using this animal model [4].
  • Expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor on B-1a cell from persistent lymphocytosis (PL) cows and lymphoma cell induced by bovine leukemia virus [5].

Psychiatry related information on CSF2

  • Use of 14-3-3 and other brain-specific proteins in CSF in the diagnosis of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease [6].
  • Increased concentration of CSF tau was found to be a sensitive marker of vCJD but as concentrations may be increased in many forms of non-CJD dementia, this may limit its usefulness as a diagnostic test [6].

High impact information on CSF2

  • Although the presence of GM-CSF alone did not induce formation of any colony or clusters, BFU-E were recorded when Ep was added 8 days later, suggesting that BFU-E could be maintained [7].
  • To examine whether a human colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-producing cell line, T3M-1, can propagate and secrete CSF without protein supplements, long-term cultivation of the cells was carried out in a protein-free chemically defined medium [8].
  • The cells will serve as an excellent model for better understanding of the cell growth and production of CSF in the absence of any serum contamination [8].
  • The capacity of AGE-BSA to induce macrophage growth was completely blocked when cells were cultured with the mAb against granulocyte/macrophage CSF (GM-CSF) [9].
  • GM-CSF, however, augmented these neutrophil effects independently of the presence of AHG [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of CSF2

  • Two of the 9 E coli isolates were resistant to trimethoprim potentiated sulfonamide drugs and all (4/4) of the CSF E coli isolates tested for susceptibility to triple-sulfonamide drugs were resistant [11].

Biological context of CSF2

  • A break or fusion between AMH and CSF2 in an ancestral chromosome is suggested to account for the current arrangement of these homologous segments in the human and bovine genomes [12].
  • In view of the role of GM-CSF on fetal growth and survival, these results support the hypothesis that the conceptus mediates accommodation mechanisms in the uterus during early pregnancy by modulating the expression of beneficial cytokines at the fetomaternal interface [13].
  • In this study, we analyzed the expression of GM-CSF in bovine and human germ cells and its influence in bovine sperm motility [14].
  • A sequence encoding bovine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has been identified from a concanavalin A-stimulated bovine lymphocyte cDNA library [15].
  • Bovine GM-CSF exhibits a high degree of sequence homology with mouse and human GM-CSF at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels [16].

Anatomical context of CSF2

  • On the basis of results obtained in vitro, we previously proposed a model in which signals from the conceptus, namely interferon-tau (IFN-tau) and prostaglandin E2, increase the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in immune and nonimmune cells of the bovine endometrium [17].
  • We previously demonstrated that preconditioning lymphocytes with PGE(2) increases the expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a cytokine that promotes conceptus growth and survival [13].
  • Moreover, GM-CSF expression was stimulated in uterine stromal cells in response to IFN-tau [13].
  • However, human GM-CSF does stimulate colony formation of bovine bone marrow cells, although the specific activity appears reduced when compared to assays on human cells [15].
  • In addition, immunolocalization studies confirmed the presence of GM-CSF in the germ cell line in bovine and human testes [14].

Associations of CSF2 with chemical compounds

  • We have recently demonstrated that bull spermatozoa express functional GM-CSF receptors that signal for increased glucose and Vitamin C uptake [14].
  • Activity that eluted with 0.2 M acetic acid 0.7-0.9 times the total volume of the column (fraction II activity) was significantly higher in the CSF of both healthy and psychotic women in the puerperium than in that of the lactating women [18].
  • Previous studies have shown that thymidine enters brain from blood in part via the CSF [19].
  • A high level of these thiols induced by GM-CSF correlates with a prominent capacity to present the antigen bovine insulin [20].
  • Hydrocortisone inhibited GM-CSF release in stimulated PBEC with a concentration that produces 50% inhibition of maximum effect (IC(1/2)max) of 5.0 x 10(-8) M [21].

Regulatory relationships of CSF2


Other interactions of CSF2

  • In experiment 1, staining for COX-2 was maximal between d18P and d24P, both in the LE and in the conceptus, whereas staining for GM-CSF reached a plateau between d18P and d30P in the LE [17].
  • In experiment 2, the effects of intrauterine infusions of IFN-tau on the expression of COX-2 and GM-CSF were analyzed [17].
  • No statistical differences were observed in the expression of interferon-gamma, IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, and GM-CSF among lepromatous, tuberculoid, and noninfected groups [24].
  • The new peptide bound heparin as efficiently as GM-CSF and much better than IGF II or BOMIGF [25].
  • We show here, that the antigen presentation capacity of BMM phi depends on the nature of the antigen and is differently regulated by the lymphokines interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CSF2


  1. Study of protein characteristics that influence entry into the cerebrospinal fluid of normal mice and mice with encephalitis. Griffin, D.E., Giffels, J. J. Clin. Invest. (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Specific inhibitory factors of cellular immunity in children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Steele, R.W., Fuccillo, D.A., Hensen, S.A., Vincent, M.M., Bellanti, J.A. J. Pediatr. (1976) [Pubmed]
  3. Intracellular survival of Haemophilus somnus in bovine blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages. Gomis, S.M., Godson, D.L., Wobeser, G.A., Potter, A.A. Microb. Pathog. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Molecular cloning and expression of woodchuck granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. Wu, H.L., Chen, P.J., Lin, H.K., Lee, R.S., Lin, H.L., Liu, C.J., Lee, P.J., Lee, J.J., Chen, D.S. J. Med. Virol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor on B-1a cell from persistent lymphocytosis (PL) cows and lymphoma cell induced by bovine leukemia virus. Murakami, K., Inumaru, S., Yokoyama, T., Okada, K., Sentsui, H. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Use of 14-3-3 and other brain-specific proteins in CSF in the diagnosis of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Green, A.J., Thompson, E.J., Stewart, G.E., Zeidler, M., McKenzie, J.M., MacLeod, M.A., Ironside, J.W., Will, R.G., Knight, R.S. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Evidence for direct action of human biosynthetic (recombinant) GM-CSF on erythroid progenitors in serum-free culture. Migliaccio, A.R., Bruno, M., Migliaccio, G. Blood (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Long-term cultivation of a human colony-stimulating factor-producing cell line in a protein-free chemically defined medium. Okabe, T., Takaku, F. Cancer Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. Induction of macrophage growth by advanced glycation end products of the Maillard reaction. Yui, S., Sasaki, T., Araki, N., Horiuchi, S., Yamazaki, M. J. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor augments neutrophil-mediated cartilage degradation and neutrophil adherence. Kowanko, I.C., Ferrante, A. Arthritis Rheum. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Meningitis in neonatal calves: 32 cases (1983-1990). Green, S.L., Smith, L.L. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. A genetic map of bovine chromosome 7 with an interspecific hybrid backcross panel. Gao, Q., Womack, J.E. Mamm. Genome (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Interferon-tau stimulates granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor gene expression in bovine lymphocytes and endometrial stromal cells. Emond, V., Asselin, E., Fortier, M.A., Murphy, B.D., Lambert, R.D. Biol. Reprod. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in male germ cells: GM-CSF enhances sperm motility. Vilanova, L.T., Rauch, M.C., Mansilla, A., Zambrano, A., Brito, M., Werner, E., Alfaro, V., Cox, J.F., Concha, I.I. Theriogenology (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Cloning and expression of the cDNA for bovine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Leong, S.R., Flaggs, G.M., Lawman, M.J., Gray, P.W. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Bovine GM-CSF: molecular cloning and biological activity of the recombinant protein. Maliszewski, C.R., Schoenborn, M.A., Cerretti, D.P., Wignall, J.M., Picha, K.S., Cosman, D., Tushinski, R.J., Gillis, S., Baker, P.E. Mol. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the endometrial epithelium of the cow is up-regulated during early pregnancy and in response to intrauterine infusions of interferon-tau. Emond, V., MacLaren, L.A., Kimmins, S., Arosh, J.A., Fortier, M.A., Lambert, R.D. Biol. Reprod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. CSF and plasma beta-casomorphin-like opioid peptides in postpartum psychosis. Lindström, L.H., Nyberg, F., Terenius, L., Bauer, K., Besev, G., Gunne, L.M., Lyrenäs, S., Willdeck-Lund, G., Lindberg, B. The American journal of psychiatry. (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. Localization and mechanism of thymidine transport in the central nervous system. Spector, R., Berlinger, W.G. J. Neurochem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  20. The efficient bovine insulin presentation capacity of bone marrow-derived macrophages activated by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor correlates with a high level of intracellular reducing thiols. Frosch, S., Bonifas, U., Eck, H.P., Bockstette, M., Droege, W., Rüde, E., Reske-Kunz, A.B. Eur. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Regulation of the action of hydrocortisone in airway epithelial cells by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Feinstein, M.B., Schleimer, R.P. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. GM-CSF increases airway smooth muscle cell connective tissue expression by inducing TGF-beta receptors. Chen, G., Grotendorst, G., Eichholtz, T., Khalil, N. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. DNA vaccination against bovine viral diarrhoea virus induces humoral and cellular responses in cattle with evidence for protection against viral challenge. Nobiron, I., Thompson, I., Brownlie, J., Collins, M.E. Vaccine (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Inflammatory cytokine gene expression in different types of granulomatous lesions during asymptomatic stages of bovine paratuberculosis. Tanaka, S., Sato, M., Onitsuka, T., Kamata, H., Yokomizo, Y. Vet. Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Increased heparin binding by site directed mutagenesis of a recombinant chimera of bombyxin and insulin-like growth factor II. Congote, L.F. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1995) [Pubmed]
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