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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Concerted action of the transcriptional activators REB1, RAP1, and GCR1 in the high-level expression of the glycolytic gene TPI.

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the TPI gene product, triosephosphate isomerase, makes up about 2% of the soluble cellular protein. Using in vitro and in vivo footprinting techniques, we have identified four binding sites for three factors in the 5' noncoding region of TPI: a REB1-binding site located at positions -401 to -392, two GCR1-binding sites located at positions -381 to -366 and -341 to -326, and a RAP1-binding site located at positions -358 to -346. We tested the effects of mutations at each of these binding sites on the expression of a TPI::lacZ gene fusion which carried 853 bp of the TPI 5' noncoding region integrated at the URA3 locus. The REB1-binding site is dispensable when material 5' to it is deleted; however, if the sequence 5' to the REB1-binding site is from the TPI locus, expression is reduced fivefold when the site is mutated. Because REB1 blocks nucleosome formation, the most likely function of its binding site in the TPI controlling region is to prevent the formation of nucleosomes over the TPI upstream activation sequence. Mutations in the RAP1-binding site resulted in a 10-fold reduction in expression of the reporter gene. Mutating either GCR1-binding site alone had a modest effect on expression of the fusion. However, mutating both GCR1-binding sites resulted in a 68-fold reduction in the level of expression of the reporter gene. A LexA-GCR1 fusion protein containing the DNA-binding domain of LexA fused to the amino terminus of GCR1 was able to activate expression of a lex operator::GAL1::lacZ reporter gene 116-fold over background levels. From this experiment, we conclude that GCR1 is able to activate gene expression in the absence of REB1 or RAP1 bound at adjacent binding sites. On the basis of these results, we suggest that GCR1 binding is required for activation of TPI and other GCR1-dependent genes and that the primary role of other factors which bind adjacent to GCR1-binding sites is to facilitate of modulate GCR1 binding in vivo.[1]


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