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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Regulation of eicosanoid biosynthesis in the macrophage. Involvement of protein tyrosine phosphorylation and modulation by selective protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

The protein tyrosine kinase ( PTK) inhibitor genistein has been demonstrated to inhibit platelet- activating factor- stimulated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-primed P388D1 macrophage-like cells (Glaser et al., J Biol Chem 265: 8658-8664, 1990). Therefore, the role of PTK in eicosanoid biosynthesis was investigated in murine resident peritoneal macrophages using genistein and tyrphostin-25, selective PTK inhibitors. Genistein, a competitive inhibitor of ATP binding on PTK, inhibited PGE2 production (IC50 = 20 microM) in response to zymosan, calcium ionophore A23187, and phorbol myristate acetate stimulation. Genistein also inhibited leukotriene C4 (LTC4) production in response to zymosan and calcium ionophore A23187 (IC50 = 10 and 15 microM, respectively) stimulation. Tyrphostin-25, a competitive inhibitor of substrate binding on PTK, inhibited zymosan-stimulated PGE2 and LTC4 production, IC50 = 20 and 7 microM, respectively. Neither genistein nor tyrophostin-25 had any effect on human synovial fluid phospholipase A2 ( PLA2) activity in vitro or on cyclooxygenase activity in the intact macrophage; however, tyrphostin-25 did affect 5-lipoxygenase activity (determined from the metabolism of exogenously applied arachidonic acid). These results suggest PTK- mediated phosphorylation as a common event in the signal transduction mechanisms of different stimuli which activate PLA2 for arachidonic acid release and subsequent eicosanoid biosynthesis. Immunoblot analyses of zymosan-stimulated peritoneal exudate cells with the phosphotyrosine monoclonal antibody clone 4G10 demonstrated an increase in protein phosphotyrosine levels in eight major protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis: p59, 71, 76, 90, 100, 112, 125 and 150. Maximal phosphorylation of these protein substrates occurred after 1-2 min stimulation. Zymosan and LPS stimulation of peritoneal exudate cells produced similar patterns of protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Zymosan-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation was inhibited by tyrphostin-25 in a concentration-dependent manner between 10 and 60 microM, demonstrating a similar concentration response between effects on tyrosine phosphorylation and eicosanoid biosynthesis in the murine peritoneal macrophage. The use of selective PTK inhibitors suggests a common role for PTK and tyrosine phosphorylation in eicosanoid biosynthesis in the murine peritoneal macrophage.[1]


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