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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Loads on muscles, tendons and bones in the hind extremities of sheep--a theoretical study.

Muscle forces and bending moments were calculated with a two-dimensional non-linear force and moment analysis (according to the Finite Element Method) during the foot-lowering phase, stance phase and stem phase in the hind legs of sheep. During the foot-lowering phase, the largest production of force is detectable in the m. biceps femoris and the highest bending moment in the proximal third of the metatarsal bone. The lowest influence of force resulted during the stance phase. During the stance phase, high forces are detectable only in the patellar ligament and middle-high forces in the m. flexor digitalis profundus. In contrast, bending forces are almost equal in strength in the metatarsus and tibia. The strongest forces are detectable in the m. quadriceps femoris and extreme demands of the patellar ligament as well as of the flexors in the proximal ankle joint during the stem phase.[1]


  1. Loads on muscles, tendons and bones in the hind extremities of sheep--a theoretical study. Hutzschenreuter, P.O., Sekler, E., Faust, G. Anatomia, histologia, embryologia. (1993) [Pubmed]
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